UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549



FORM 20-F


 
(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
 OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from to
OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
Commission File Number: 001-41687


 
BITDEER TECHNOLOGIES GROUP
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)


 
Not applicable
Cayman Islands
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)


 
08 Kallang Avenue
Aperia tower 1, #09-03/04
Singapore 339509
(Address of principal executive offices)
Jihan Wu
Chief Executive Officer
08 Kallang Avenue
Aperia tower 1, #09-03/04
Singapore 339509
Telephone: +65 62828220
(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of exchange
on which registered
Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0000001
BTDR
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
 
None
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
 
None
(Title of Class)
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 111,966,298 outstanding ordinary shares as of December 31, 2023 (excluding 606,756 class A ordinary shares that have been repurchased but not cancelled and 5,436,385 class A ordinary shares reserved for future issuances upon the exercise of awards granted under our share incentive plans), including 63,566,376 Class A ordinary shares and 48,399,922 Class V ordinary shares.
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes ☐ No
 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.   Yes  ☐ No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes  ☐ No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).   Yes ☒    No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
       
Emerging growth company

 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 
†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting over Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.     Yes      No ☒
 
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
 
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b). ☐
 
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board
Other
 
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.   Item 17 ☐    Item 18 ☐
 
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No ☒
 



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INTRODUCTION
Frequently Used Terms
 
In this annual report on Form 20-F (this “annual report”), unless the context otherwise requires, the “Company,” “Bitdeer” and references to “we,” “us,” or similar such references should be understood to be references to Bitdeer Technologies Group and its subsidiaries. When this annual report refers to “Bitdeer” “we,” “us,” or similar such references in the context of discussing Bitdeer’s business or other affairs prior to the consummation of the Business Combination on April 13, 2023, it refers to the business of Bitdeer Technologies Holding Company and its subsidiaries. Following the date of consummation of the Business Combination, references to “Bitdeer” “we,” “us,” or similar such references should be understood to refer to Bitdeer Technologies Group and its subsidiaries. References to “BSGA” should be understood to refer to Blue Safari Group Acquisition Corp.
 
Certain amounts and percentages that appear in this annual report may not sum due to rounding. Unless otherwise stated or unless the context otherwise requires, in this annual report:
 
“Acquisition Merger” means, following the Initial Mergers, the merger where Bitdeer Merger Sub merges with and into Bitdeer, with Bitdeer being the surviving entity and becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company
 
“Acquisition Merger Effective Time” means the effective time of the Acquisition Merger.
 
“Bitdeer Convertible Note” means the US$30,000,000 8% coupon unsecured convertible notes due July 2023 issued pursuant to such subscription agreement dated July 23, 2021 between Bitdeer and VENTE Technology Growth Investments L.P. as the noteholder, as amended by the First Amendment to Definitive Certificate for the Convertible Notes, dated December 15, 2021, by the same parties, and further amended by the Second Amendment to Definitive Certificate for the Convertible Notes, dated July 22, 2023, by the same parties, as a result of which we have repaid US$7 million in principal (and interest accrued thereon from July 1, 2023) of the then outstanding notes, and extended the maturity of the Bitdeer Convertible Note to July 21, 2025, by when we will pay the remainder of the notes.
 
“Bitdeer Merger Sub” or “Merger Sub 3” means Bitdeer Merge Limited, an exempted company with limited liability incorporated under the laws of Cayman Islands and a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company.
 
“Bitdeer Ordinary Shares” means the ordinary shares in the share capital of Bitdeer.
 
“Bitdeer Plan” means the 2021 Share Incentive Plan adopted by Bitdeer on July 20, 2021, as amended from time to time.
 
“Bitdeer Preference Shares” means the preference shares in the share capital of Bitdeer.
 
“Bitdeer RSUs” means the restricted share units to acquire Bitdeer Shares issued pursuant to an award granted under the Bitdeer Plan.
 
“Bitdeer Shares” means the Bitdeer Ordinary Shares and the Bitdeer Preference Shares.
 
“Bitdeer Total Shares” means, as of immediately prior to the Acquisition Effective Time, (i) the sum of the number of issued and outstanding Bitdeer Shares (on an as-converted basis), (ii) the aggregate number of Bitdeer Shares (on an as-converted basis) issuable upon the settlement of all vested Bitdeer RSUs as of immediately prior to the Acquisition Effective Time (including after giving effect to the consummation of the Acquisition Merger or any acceleration of any unvested Bitdeer RSUs in connection with the consummation of the Acquisition Merger) and (iii) the aggregate number of Bitdeer Shares (on an as converted basis) issuable upon conversion of the Bitdeer Convertible Note.
 
“Business Combination” means, collectively, the Acquisition Merger, the Initial Mergers and other transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement.
 
“BSGA” means Blue Safari Group Acquisition Corp., a British Virgin Islands business company.
 
“BSGA Merger Sub 1” means Blue Safari Merge Limited, a British Virgin Islands business company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company;
 
“BSGA Merger Sub 2” means Blue Safari Merge II Limited, a British Virgin Islands business company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company.
 
“Cayman Companies Act” means the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands.
 
“Class A Ordinary Shares” means the Class A ordinary shares of a par value of US$0.0000001 each, in the authorized share capital of the Company.
 
“Class V Ordinary Shares” means the Class V ordinary shares of a par value of US$0.0000001 each, in the authorized share capital of the Company.
 
“Closing Date” means April 13, 2023.
 
“COVID-19” means the novel coronavirus.
 
“Code” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
 
“Exchange Act” means the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
“Exchange Ratio” means the quotient obtained by dividing the Per Share Equity Value by US$10.00, which is approximately 0.00858 based on the number of Bitdeer Total Shares as of immediately prior to the Acquisition Merger Effective Time (as defined in the Merger Agreement).
 
“First SPAC Merger” means the merger where BSGA Merger Sub 1 merges with and into BSGA, with BSGA being the surviving entity and becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company.
 
“IAS” means International Accounting Standard.
 
“IASB” means International Accounting Standards Board.
 
“IFRS” means International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.
 
“Initial Mergers” means, collectively, the First SPAC Merger and the Second SPAC Merger.
 
“Investment Company Act” or “1940 Act” means the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.
 
“JOBS Act” means the Jumpstart our Business Startups Act of 2012.
 
“Merger Agreement” means the Amended and Restated Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated December 15, 2021, by and among the Company, BSGA, Bitdeer and other parties thereto, which amended and restated the Agreement and Plan of Merger dated November 18, 2021, as amended by (i) the First Amendment to Amended and Restated Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated May 30, 2022, by and among the same parties, (ii) the Second Amendment to Amended and Restated Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated December 2, 2022, by and among the same parties, and (iii) the Third Amendment to Amended and Restated Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated March 7, 2023, by and among the same parties.
 
“Nasdaq” means the Nasdaq Stock Market.
 
“Ordinary Shares” means Class A Ordinary Shares and/or Class V Ordinary Shares (as appropriate).
 
“PFIC” means a passive foreign investment company.
 
“Per Share Equity Value” means the quotient obtained by dividing US$1.18 billion by the Bitdeer Total Shares.
 
“Rule 144” means Rule 144 under the Securities Act.
 
“Sarbanes-Oxley Act” means the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
“SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
“Second SPAC Merger” means, following the First SPAC Merger, the merger where BSGA merges with and into BSGA Merger Sub 2, with BSGA Merger Sub 2 being the surviving entity and continuing as a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company.
 
“Securities Act” means the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
 
“U.S. Dollars” and “US$” means United States dollars, the legal currency of the United States.
 
“U.S. GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.
 
“VAT” means value added tax.
 
Frequently Used Technical Terms
 
Unless otherwise stated or unless the context otherwise requires, in this annual report:
 
“BCH” means Bitcoin Cash.
 
“BCHA” means Bitcoin Cash ABC.
 
“BSV” means Bitcoin Satoshi’s Vision.
 
“BTC” means Bitcoin.
 
“BTM” means Bytom.
 
“CKB” means Nervos Network.
 
“DASH” means Dash.
 
“DCR” means Decred.
 
“DOGE” means Dogecoin.
 
“DPoS” means Delegated Proof-of-Stake.
 
“EH/s” means exahash per second.
 
“ETC” means Ethereum Classic.
 
“ETH” means Ethereum.
 
“ETN” means Electroneum.
 
“FIL” means Filecoin.
 
“HNS” means Handshake coin.
 
“j/T” means joule/terahash.
 
“LTC” means Litecoin.
 
“PoC” means Proof-of-Capacity.
 
“PoS” means Proof-of-Stake.
 
“PoST” means Proof-of-Spacetime.
 
“PoW” means Proof-of-Work.
 
“SC” means Siacoin.
 
“TH/s” means terahash per second.
 
“USDC” means USD Coin.
 
“USDT” means Tether, a cryptocurrency that is hosted on the Ethereum and Bitcoin blockchains, among others.
 
“XCH” means Chia.
 
“ZEC” means Zcash.
 
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This annual report contains or may contain forward-looking statements as defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, that involve significant risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include information about our possible or assumed future results of operations or our performance. Words such as “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify the forward-looking statements, but absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. The risk factors and cautionary language referred to in this annual report provide examples of risks, uncertainties and events that may cause actual results to differ materially from the expectations described in our forward-looking statements, including among other things, the matters set forth in the section entitled “Item 3. Key Information - D. Risk Factors” of this annual report.
 
Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this annual report. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, there can be no assurance that such expectations will prove to be correct. These statements involve known and unknown risks and are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates which are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained in this annual report, or the documents to which we refer readers in this annual report, to reflect any change in our expectations with respect to such statements or any change in events, conditions or circumstances upon which any statement is based.

PART I
 
ITEM 1.
IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 2.
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 3.
KEY INFORMATION
 
A.
[Reserved]
 
B.
Capitalization and Indebtedness
 
Not applicable.
 
C.
Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
 
Not applicable.
 
D.
Risk Factors
 
Our business and our industry are subject to significant risks. You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this annual report and in our other filings with the SEC, including the following risk factors, in evaluating our business. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, operating results, and growth prospects would likely be materially and adversely affected. This annual report also contains forward- looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Information.”
 
Summary of Risk Factors
 
The following summary description sets forth an overview of the material risks we are exposed to in the normal course of our business activities. The summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full risk factor discussion immediately following this summary description. We encourage you to read the full risk factor discussion carefully.
 
Our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected by any of the following material risks:
 

The cryptocurrency industry in which we operate is characterized by constant changes. If we fail to continuously innovate and to provide solutions or services that meet the expectations of our customers, we may not be able to attract new customers or retain existing customers, and hence our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
 

Our results of operations have been and are expected to continue to be significantly impacted by Bitcoin price fluctuation.
 

The supply of Bitcoins available for mining is limited and we may not be able to quickly adapt to new businesses when all the Bitcoins have been mined.
 

Although we have an organic way of growing our mining fleets, our business is nevertheless capital intensive. We may need additional capital but may not be able to obtain it in a timely manner and on favorable terms or at all.
 

We may not be able to maintain our competitive position as cryptocurrency networks experience increases in the total network hash rate.
 

We have experienced negative cash flows from operating activities and incurred net losses in the past. We can provide no assurance of our future operating results.
 

Our limited operating history and rapid revenue growth may make it difficult for us to forecast our business and assess the seasonality and volatility in our business.
 

We have experienced and may experience in the future hash rate loss during our operations due to factors beyond our control.
 

We are subject to risks associated with our need for significant electric power and the limited availability of power resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 

Because there has been limited precedent set for financial accounting for Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, the determinations that we have made for how to account for cryptocurrencies transactions may be subject to change.
 

Any loss or destruction of a private key required to access our cryptocurrency is irreversible. We also may temporarily lose access to our cryptocurrencies.
 

Bitcoin exchanges and wallets, and to a lesser extent, the Bitcoin network itself, may suffer from hacking and fraud risks, which may adversely erode user confidence in Bitcoin which would decrease the demand for our products and services. Further, digital asset exchanges on which crypto assets trade are relatively new and largely unregulated, and thus may be exposed to fraud and failure. Incorrect or fraudulent cryptocurrency transactions may be irreversible.
 

We are subject to a highly-evolving regulatory landscape and any adverse changes to, or our failure to comply with, any laws and regulations could adversely affect our business, reputation, prospects or operations.
 

The nature of our business requires the application of complex financial accounting rules, and there is limited guidance from accounting standard setting bodies. If financial accounting standards undergo significant changes, our operating results could be adversely affected.
 

We are subject to tax risks related to our multinational operations.
 

Our interactions with a blockchain may expose us to specially designated nationals (“SDN”) or blocked persons or cause us to violate provisions of law that did not contemplate distribute ledger technology.
 
Risks Related to Our Business, Operations, Industry and Financial Condition
 
The cryptocurrency industry in which we operate is characterized by constant changes. If we fail to continuously innovate and to provide solutions or services that meet the expectations of our customers, we may not be able to attract new customers or retain existing customers, and hence our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
 
The cryptocurrency industry in which we operate is characterized by constant changes, including rapid technological evolution, continual shifts in customer demands, frequent introductions of new products and solutions and constant emergence of new industry standards and practices. Thus, our success will depend, in part, on our ability to respond to these changes in a cost-effective and timely manner. Advances in Bitcoin mining-related technology have led to increased demand for higher speed and power efficiency for solving computational problems of increasing complexity. We need to invest significant resources in research and development in order to keep our services competitive in the market. Also, if we are unable to generate enough revenue or raise sufficient capital to make adequate research and development investments going forward, our service improvement and relevant research and development initiatives may be restricted or delayed, or we may not be able to keep pace with the latest market trends and satisfy our customers’ needs, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
 
Furthermore, research and development activities are inherently uncertain, and we might encounter practical difficulties in commercializing our research and development results, which could result in excessive research and development expenses or delays. Given the fast pace with which blockchain technologies have been and will continue to be developed, we may not be able to timely upgrade our technologies in an efficient and cost-effective manner, or at all. In addition, new developments relating to computing power (e.g., quantum computer), computing energy consumption, blockchain and cryptocurrency could render our services obsolete or unattractive. If we are unable to keep up with the technological developments and anticipate market trends, or if new technologies render our technologies or solutions obsolete, customers may no longer be attracted to our services. As a result, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.
 
Our results of operations have been and are expected to continue to be significantly impacted by Bitcoin price fluctuation.
 
Our ability to generate economic benefits (i.e., positive cash flow or profits) from Bitcoin mining is directly affected by the market price of Bitcoin. The Bitcoin price may impact the use of our mining machines. When the market price of a Bitcoin drops below certain thresholds, the operation of existing mining machines may not be economically beneficial for us. In addition, the depreciation and impairment potential of our mining machines may be affected by the volatility of the market prices of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. On the other hand, a drop in Bitcoin price may also create an opportunity for us to add cheaper mining machines to our mining fleets.
 
The appreciation potential of Bitcoin is high in general, which is due to several factors. Bitcoins are inherently scarce, given they are designed to have a finite supply of 21 million associated with a depreciating rewarding mechanism, termed “halving,” under which the reward for Bitcoin mining is reduced in half every four years. The growing recognition of Bitcoin also attracts large investment into the Bitcoin economy, as evidenced by an increasing installed network hash rate of Bitcoin globally, and increasing adoption of Bitcoin as an investment instrument and a payment method. Further, more countries are establishing clear and robust regulations to create a stable environment for Bitcoin mining and trading, which may facilitate the demand for Bitcoins and Bitcoin price appreciation.
 
Despite the general appreciation potential of Bitcoin, there are a number of other factors that contribute to changes in Bitcoin price and volatility, including, but not limited to, Bitcoin market sentiment, macroeconomic factors, utility of Bitcoin, and idiosyncratic events such as exchange outages or social media, some of which are beyond our control. For example, decentralization, or the lack of control by a central authority, is a key reason that cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin have attracted many committed users. However, the decentralized nature of Bitcoin is subject to growing discussion and suspicion. Some claim that most of the actual services and businesses built within the Bitcoin ecosystem are in fact centralized since they are run by specific people, in specific locations, with specific computer systems, and that they are susceptible to specific regulations. Individuals, companies or groups, as well as Bitcoin exchanges that own vast amounts of Bitcoins, can affect the market price of Bitcoin. For example, throughout calendar year 2022, a number of companies in the digital assets industry have declared bankruptcy, including cryptocurrency exchanges FTX Trading Ltd., et al. (“FTX”) (including its affiliated hedge fund Alameda Research LLC), crypto hedge fund Three Arrows Capital (“Three Arrows”), crypto miners Compute North LLC (“Compute North”) and Core Scientific Inc. (“Core Scientific”) and crypto lenders Celsius Network LLC, et al. (“Celsius Network”), Voyager Digital Ltd., et al. (“Voyager Digital”) and BlockFi Inc., et al. (“BlockFi”). Such bankruptcies have led, at least in part, to a drop in Bitcoin price. Furthermore, mining equipment production and mining pool locations are becoming centralized. Some argue that the decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies is a fundamental flaw rather than a strength. The suspicion about the decentralized nature of Bitcoin may cause the market to lose confidence in the prospect of the Bitcoin industry, which would adversely affect Bitcoin price. This in turn could adversely affect the market demand for our services and business.
 
Any future significant reductions in the price of Bitcoin will likely have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. There is no assurance that the Bitcoin price will remain high enough to sustain the demand for our hash rate sharing and hosting services or that the Bitcoin price will not decline significantly in the future. Furthermore, fluctuations in the Bitcoin price can have an immediate impact on the trading price of Class A Ordinary Shares. If the Bitcoin price drops, the expected economic return of Bitcoin mining activities will diminish, thereby resulting in a decrease in demand for our Bitcoin-related services, and in value appreciation from our self-mining activities. As a result, we may need to reduce the price of our Cloud Hash Rate and hosting services. For risks relating to the impact of Bitcoin price fluctuation on our growth trends, see the section entitled “- We may be unable to execute our growth strategies or effectively maintain our rapid growth trends” below.
 
The supply of Bitcoins available for mining is limited and we may not be able to quickly adapt to new businesses when all the Bitcoins have been mined.
 
Bitcoins are inherently scarce, given they are designed to have a finite supply of 21 million associated with “halving” mechanism. The number of blocks that can be solved in a year is designed to be fixed, and the number of Bitcoins awarded for solving a block in the blockchain halves approximately every four years until the estimated complete depletion of Bitcoin available for mining by around 2140. When the Bitcoin network was first launched, the reward for validating a new block was 50 Bitcoins. In November 2012, the reward for validating a new block was reduced to 25 Bitcoins. In July 2016, the reward for validating a new block was reduced to 12.5 Bitcoins, and in May 2020, the reward was further reduced to 6.25 Bitcoins. The next halving for Bitcoin is expected in 2024 at block 840,000, when the reward will reduce to 3.125 Bitcoins. While the remaining Bitcoins are not designed to be entirely depleted in the near future, a decrease in the reward for solving a block or an increase in the transaction fees may result in a decrease in incentives for miners to continue their mining activities and the loss of Bitcoin’s dominant position among the cryptocurrencies, thereby reducing the demand for Bitcoin mining related services of us. As of the date of this annual report, the largest portion of our revenue was generated from our self-mining business and hash rate sales through Cloud Hash Rate, which are associated with Bitcoin mining. We may not be able to quickly adapt to new businesses or expand to other cryptocurrencies when all the Bitcoins have been discovered or Bitcoin is replaced by other cryptocurrencies as the mainstream cryptocurrency, which will result in a significant negative impact on our business and results of operations.
 
Although we have an organic way of growing our mining fleets, our business is nevertheless capital intensive. We may need additional capital but may not be able to obtain it in a timely manner and on favorable terms or at all.
 
The costs of constructing, developing, operating and maintaining cryptocurrency mining and hosting facilities, and owning and operating a large fleet of the latest generation mining equipment are substantial. Our operations may require additional capital or financing from time to time in order to achieve further growth. We may require additional cash resources due to the future growth and development of our business. Our future capital requirements may be substantial as we seek to expand our operations, diversify our product offering, and pursue acquisitions and equity investments. If our cash resources are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek to issue additional equity or debt securities or obtain new or expanded credit facilities or enter into additional factoring arrangements.
 
Our ability to obtain external financing in the future may be subject to a variety of uncertainties, including our future financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and the liquidity of international capital and lending markets. While we face less working capital constraints as we expand our hash rate sharing business, which generates quicker cash payback, the self-mining business is nevertheless capital intensive. We may need additional capital if Bitcoin price increases as it will likely push up prices for supplies required for the self-mining business. However, in light of conditions impacting the industry, it may be more difficult for us to obtain equity or debt financing currently and/or in the future. For instance, the crypto assets industry has been negatively impacted by events such as the bankruptcies of Compute North, Core Scientific, Alameda Research LLC, BlockFi, Celsius Network, Voyager Digital, Three Arrows and FTX throughout calendar year 2022. In response to these events, the digital asset markets, including the market for Bitcoin specifically, have experienced extreme price volatility and several other entities in the digital asset industry have been, and may continue to be, negatively affected, further undermining confidence in the digital assets markets and in Bitcoin. Any indebtedness that we may incur in the future may also contain operating and financial covenants that could further restrict our operations. There can be no assurance that financing will be available in a timely manner or in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, or at all. A large amount of bank borrowings and other debt may result in a significant increase in interest expense while at the same time exposing us to increased interest rate risks. Equity financings could result in dilution to our shareholders, and the securities issued in future financings may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of our ordinary shares. Any failure to raise needed funds on terms favorable to us, or at all, could severely restrict our liquidity as well as have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We may not be able to maintain our competitive position as cryptocurrency networks experience increases in the total network hash rate.
 
As the relative market price of a cryptocurrency, such as Bitcoin, increases, more companies are encouraged to mine for that cryptocurrency and as more mining machines are added to the network, its total hash rate increases. In order for us to maintain our competitive position under such circumstances, we must increase our total hash rate by acquiring and deploying more mining machines, including new mining machines with higher hash rates. There are currently only a few companies capable of producing a sufficient number of machines with adequate quality to address the increased demand. If we are not able to acquire and deploy additional mining machines on a timely basis, our proportion of the overall network hash rate will decrease and we will have a lower chance of solving new blocks which will have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
 
We have experienced negative cash flows from operating activities and incurred net losses in the past. We can provide no assurance of our future operating results.
 
We had negative cash flows from operating activities in the amount of US$52.5 million, US$268.0 million and US$271.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. We incurred a net loss of US$60.4 million and US$56.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023, respectively, and generated a net profit of US$82.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. We have generated negative cash flow from operating activities and incurred loss in the past, and there is no assurance that we will be able to generate positive cash flow from operating activities or achieve or subsequently maintain profitability in the future. We will need to generate and sustain increased revenue and net income levels in future periods in order to increase profitability, and, even if we do, we may not be able to maintain or increase our level of profitability over the long term. Our ability to achieve profitability and positive cash flow from operating activities will depend on a mix of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including the price of Bitcoin, our ability to operate and expand our business and manage our services mix, and our ability to secure favorable commercial terms from suppliers.
 
Our limited operating history and rapid revenue growth may make it difficult for us to forecast our business and assess the seasonality and volatility in our business.
 
We have achieved rapid growth since our inception. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, our total revenue amounted to US$394.7 million, US$333.3 million and US$368.6 million, respectively. We may experience negative growth or positive growth at a lower rate for a number of possible reasons, including decreasing market price of cryptocurrencies, increasing competition, declining growth of the cryptocurrency industry, unforeseeable technology innovation, emergence of alternative mainstream cryptocurrencies, or changes in government policies, regulations or general economic conditions. It is also difficult to forecast seasonality and volatility in our business, and as a result accurately allocating resources including hash rate, mining datacenter capacity, or human capital to different business lines to achieve the best results in the medium or long term. If our growth rates decline, investors’ perceptions of our business and business prospects may be adversely affected and the market price of our ordinary shares could decline. In addition, given the volatile nature of cryptocurrencies and that our business and financial condition correlate with the market price of cryptocurrencies, it is difficult to evaluate our business and future prospects based on our limited operating history or historical performance.
 
We have experienced and may experience in the future hash rate loss during our operations due to factors beyond our control.
 
We generate hash rate through operating our mining datacenters. To efficiently increase hash rate under management (i.e., proprietary hash rate and hosting hash rate), our efforts include constructing and expanding mining datacenters in prime locations globally, purchasing the latest mining machine models and continually optimizing operational efficiency of our mining datacenters and mining machines. However, hash rate generation is affected by factors beyond our control, including temperature, humidity, mining machine quality, the depreciation and deterioration of mining machines, the location of our mining machines globally, spare parts supply quality, quantity and timeliness, sudden surge in power price or sudden power outage, maintenance team members’ lack of experience, unseen computer virus attack, etc. For example, we have experienced hash rate loss during 2021, primarily due to relocation of mining machines as well as unfavorable weather condition. In the future, we expect the risks of hash rate loss will remain, which may affect our business and results of operations.
 
We are subject to risks associated with our need for significant electric power and the limited availability of power resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our business requires a significant amount of electric power. The costs of electric power account for a significant portion of our cost of revenue. We require a significant electric power supply to conduct our mining activity, to produce cloud hash rate and to provide hosting services such as powering and cooling our and our customers’ servers and network equipment and operating critical mining and hosting infrastructure.
 
There has been a substantial increase in the demand for electricity for cryptocurrency mining, and this has had varying impacts on local electricity supply. Additionally, we currently rely on renewable sources of power and plan to increase our reliance on renewable sources of power in the future. Renewable power is generally an intermittent and variable source of electricity, which may not always be available. Because the electrical grid has very little storage capacity, the balance between electricity supply and demand must be maintained at all times to avoid a blackout or other cascading problem. Intermittent sources of renewable power are challenging because they disrupt the conventional methods for planning the daily operation of the electrical grid. Their power fluctuates over multiple time horizons, forcing the grid operator to adjust its day- ahead, hour-ahead, and real-time operating procedures.
 
The amount of power required by us and our customers will increase commensurately with the demand for our services and the increase in mining machines we operate for ourself and our hosting customers. Should our operations require more electricity than can be supplied in the areas where our mining facilities are located or should the electrical transmission grid and distribution systems be unable to provide the continuous, steady supply of electricity required, we may have to limit or suspend activities or reduce the speed of our proposed expansion, either voluntarily or as a result of either quotas imposed by energy companies or governments, or increased prices for certain users (such as the Company). If we are unable to procure electricity at a suitable price, we may have to shut down our operations in that particular jurisdiction either temporarily or permanently. Therefore, increased power costs and limited availability and curtailment of power resources will reduce our revenue and have a material and adverse effect on our cost of revenue and results of operations. Although we aim to build and operate energy efficient facilities, there can be no assurance such facilities will be able to deliver sufficient power to meet the growing needs of our business. If we are unable to receive adequate power supply and is forced to reduce our operations due to the availability or cost of electrical power, our business would experience materially negative impacts.
 
Certain government actors have begun to intervene with the supply of electrical energy to cryptocurrency miners. For example, on March 9, 2023, the Department of the Treasury published General Explanations of the Administration’s Fiscal Year 2024 Revenue Proposals, in which it proposed imposing a 30% excise tax on electricity usage by digital asset miners. Governments or government regulators may potentially restrict electricity suppliers from providing electricity to mining datacenter in times of electricity shortage increase the cost, including through taxation, of, electricity, or may otherwise potentially restrict or prohibit the provision of electricity to businesses like us. In the event government regulators issue moratoriums or impose bans or restrictions involving hosting operations or transaction processing in jurisdictions in which we operate, we will not be able to continue our operations in such jurisdictions. A moratorium ban or restriction could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Additionally, our cryptocurrency mining machines would be materially adversely affected by a power outage. Energy costs and availability are vulnerable to risks of outages and power grid damage as a result of inclement weather, animal incursion, sabotage and other events out of our control. Because the mining portion of our business consumes a large amount of energy, it is not practical or economical for our operations to run on back-up generators in the event of a power outage, which may be caused by weather, acts of God, wild fires, pandemics, falling trees, falling distribution poles and transmission towers, transmission and distribution cable cuts, other force majeure events in the electricity and natural gas markets and/or the negligence or malfeasance of others. Any system downtime resulting from insufficient power resources or power outages could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
If we fail to accurately estimate the factors upon which we base our contract pricing, we may generate less profit than expected or incur losses on those contracts, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our cloud hash rate and hosting contracts are generally priced taking into account various factors including the then Bitcoin price, network hash rate, purchase cost of mining machines, estimated power consumption by our clients, along with other costs of products or services, as adjusted for actual costs. Our ability to earn a profit on such contracts requires that we accurately estimate the costs involved and outcomes likely to be achieved and assess the probability of generating sufficient hosting and colocation capacity within the contracted time period. Our pricing of hash rates may cause significantly lower income than we could have generated through using the same hash rates for self-mining. We may also not be able to accurately forecast the outcome of selling our products and services at a particular price and the inability to accurately estimate the factors upon which we base our contract pricing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We have broad discretion regarding pricing strategy and resource allocation and may exercise related business judgments in a way that you may not agree with. Such judgments may not achieve the best possible outcome for our business operations.
 
Our business operations involve constant and important decision-making regarding the pricing of our services and allocation of mining resources. We take into account our estimates of market trends when determining pricing strategies. To achieve profitability in the long run, we may offer lower price in order to acquire and retain new customers, even if this pricing does not allow us to maximize our short-term revenue. As we operate three business lines, we have to decide the allocation of proprietary hash rate between “self-mining” and “hash rate sharing” as well as the allocation of mining datacenter capacity among “self-mining,” “hash rate sharing” and “hosting.” While allocating more mining resources to “hash rate sharing” and “hosting” services may facilitate cash payback and mining datacenter expansion while lower risk exposure associated with Bitcoin price volatility, we have to forgo our huge appreciation potential to some extent as we could earn more Bitcoins by allocating the same mining resources to “self-mining,” and vice versa. We spend great efforts in making these business decisions in the Company’s best interest, taking into account Bitcoin price, network hash rate, the amount of cash we need and our view on the market opportunities for acquiring mining machines or expanding mining datacenters at low cost, etc. However, we cannot guarantee that our decisions could generate the most revenue or offer the strongest downside protection for the Company. If we cannot accurately estimate any of the aforementioned factors upon which we base, our contract pricing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
 
We face intense competition and our competitors may employ aggressive pricing strategies, which can lead to a price reduction of our solutions and services and material adverse effect on our results of operations.
 
We operate in highly competitive industries for cryptocurrency mining and related services, and we may look to enter into markets with very competitive landscapes. Our competitors include many well-known worldwide players, and we face competitors that are larger than ourselves and have advantages over ourselves in terms of economies of scale and financial and other resources. We expect that competition in our markets will continue to be intense. Some of our competitors may also have stronger brand names, greater access to capital, longer histories, longer relationships with their suppliers or customers and more resources than we do. Furthermore, these competitors may be able to adapt to changes in the industry more promptly and efficiently. Intense competition from existing and potential competitors could result in material price reductions in the products we sell or a decrease in our market share. Aggressive pricing strategies by our competitors and an abundant supply of hash rate sharing or hosting services in the market may cause us to reduce the prices of our services and also negatively affect the demand for our services or harm our profitability. If we fail to compete effectively and efficiently or fail to adapt to changes in the competitive landscape, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
 
The average selling prices of our solutions and services may fluctuate from time to time due to technological advancement and we may not be able to pass onto our machine suppliers such decreases, which may in turn adversely affect our profitability.
 
The Bitcoin-related industry is characterized by rapid launches of new products, continuous technological advancements and changing market trends and customer preferences, all of which may translate to fluctuations in the average selling prices of products or services over time. Because we compete in an environment of rapidly evolving technology advancement, market trends and developments of the hash rate sharing and hosting industry, there is no assurance that we will be able to pass on any decrease in average selling prices of our services to our suppliers in a timely manner or at all. In the event that average selling prices of our services unusually or significantly decrease, and such decreases cannot be offset by a corresponding decrease in the prices of the principal components of our services, our gross profit margins may be materially and adversely affected.
 
There are uncertainties over the outcome of our mining operations.
 
Our mining operation comprises blockchain mining technologies that depend on a network of computers to run certain software programs to solve complex transactions in competition with other mining operations and to process transactions. Because of this less centralized model and the complexity of our mining operation, there are uncertainties over the likelihood of winning a block reward and hence the outcome of our mining operations. While we participate in mining pools to combine our mining operations with other mining participants to increase processing power to solve blocks, there can be no assurance that such pools will adequately address this risk.
 
The development of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency is in its early stage and any adverse development in the cryptocurrency or blockchain market could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
Blockchain is a voluntary open network that can be used by anyone with devices connected to the internet. It allows every node to create immutable data, transparent record of transactions and peer-to-peer transactions in an efficient, secure and trust-free manner. Because of such advantages, blockchain can be applied to various industries and activities, such as cryptocurrency, payment, financial services, Internet-of-Things (IoT), cloud computing and cybersecurity, among others. However, there can be no assurance of such acceptance in the society. There may not be strong market demand for our mining services as a key and important process during the application process of blockchain technology, and our prospects, business and results of operations can be materially and adversely affected.
 
Adverse developments in the blockchain industry could lead to a decrease in the demand for hash rate products and hosting resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We face risks including those related to:
 

a decline in the adoption and use of Bitcoin and other similar cryptocurrencies within the technology industry or a decline in value of cryptocurrencies;
 

increased costs of complying with existing or new government regulations applicable to cryptocurrencies and other factors;
 

a downturn in the market for blockchain hosting space generally, which could be caused by an oversupply of or reduced demand for blockchain space;
 

any transition by our customers of blockchain hosting from third-party providers like the Company to customer-owned and operated facilities;
 

the rapid development of new technologies or the adoption of new industry standards that render us or our customers’ current products and services obsolete or unmarketable and, in the case of our customers, that contribute to a downturn in their businesses, increasing the likelihood of a default under their service agreements or their becoming insolvent;
 

a slowdown in the growth of the internet generally as a medium for commerce and communication;
 

availability of an adequate supply of new generation cryptocurrency mining equipment to enable us to mine cryptocurrencies at scale and for customers who want to purchase hash rate from us or host with us to be able to do so; and
 

the degree of difficulty in mining cryptocurrencies and the trading price of such assets.
 
Additionally, Bitcoin, a mainstream cryptocurrency based upon blockchain technology, was first introduced in 2008 and is generally regarded as the first application of the blockchain technology. The Bitcoin network and its surrounding ecosystem is still in a relatively early development stage. Cryptocurrencies have only recently become selectively accepted as a means of payment for goods and services by many industries, and use of cryptocurrency by consumers to pay in such industries remains limited. In addition, there may be some jurisdictions that restrict the use of Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies as a medium of exchange and the conversion between cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies. There is no assurance that usage of cryptocurrencies, in particular Bitcoins, will continue to grow. As our business focuses on proprietary cryptocurrency mining and serving cryptocurrency miners, and relies heavily on the cryptocurrency market, any lack of usage of or fade in the public interest for cryptocurrency may adversely affect our business, future prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
 
We are subject to risks associated with legal, political or other conditions or developments regarding holding, using or mining of cryptocurrencies, in particular Bitcoins, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial position.
 
Our customers are based globally. As such, changes in government policies, taxes, general economic and fiscal conditions, as well as political, diplomatic or social events, expose us to financial and business risks. In particular, changes in policies and laws regarding holding, using and/or mining of Bitcoins could result in an adverse effect on our business operations and results of operations. Moreover, if any international jurisdiction where we operate mining datacenters or sell our Bitcoin mining related services prohibits or restricts Bitcoin mining activities, we may face legal and other liabilities and will experience a material loss of revenue.
 
There are significant uncertainties regarding future regulations pertaining to the holding, using or mining of Bitcoins, which may adversely affect our results of operations. While Bitcoin has gradually gained more market acceptance and attention, it is anonymous and may be used for black market transactions, money laundering, illegal activities or tax evasion. As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict, control or ban the mining, use and holding of Bitcoins. Our existing policies and procedures for the detection and prevention of money laundering and terrorism-funding activities through our business activities have only been adopted in recent years and may not completely eliminate instances in which we or our services may be used by other parties to engage in money laundering and other illegal or improper activities. We are subject to anti-money laundering laws in many jurisdictions in which we operate. We cannot assure you that there will not be a failure in detecting money laundering or other illegal or improper activities which may adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
With advances in technology, cryptocurrencies are likely to undergo significant changes in the future. It remains uncertain whether Bitcoin will be able to cope with, or benefit from, those changes. In addition, as Bitcoin mining employs sophisticated and high computing power devices that need to consume a lot of electricity to operate, future developments in the regulation of energy consumption, including possible restrictions on energy usage in the jurisdictions where we sell our products or services, may also affect our business operations and the demand for our current and future mining related products or services, including cloud hash rate, hosting and Minerplus. There have been public backlashes surrounding the environmental impacts of Bitcoin mining, particularly the large consumption of electricity, and governments of various jurisdictions have responded. For example, in the United States, certain local governments of the State of Washington have discussed measures to address environmental impacts of Bitcoin-related operations, such as the high electricity consumption of Bitcoin mining activities.
 
Substantial increases in the supply of mining machines connected to the Bitcoin network would lead to an increase in network hash rate capacity, which in turn would increase mining difficulty. This development would negatively affect the economic returns of Bitcoin mining activities, which would decrease the demand for and/or pricing of our products and services.
 
The difficulty of Bitcoin mining, or the amount of computational resource required for a set amount of reward for recording a new block, directly affects the expected economic returns for Bitcoin miners, which in turn affects our self-mining business and the demand for our Bitcoin mining related products and services including hash rate sharing and hosting. Bitcoin mining difficulty is a measure of how much computing power is required to record a new block and it is affected by the total amount of computing power in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin algorithm is designed to the effect that one block is generated, on average, every ten minutes, no matter how much computing power is in the network. Thus, as more computing power joins the network, and assuming the rate of block creation does not change (remaining at one block generated every ten minutes), the amount of computing power required to generate each block and hence the mining difficulty increases. In other words, based on the current design of the Bitcoin network, Bitcoin mining difficulty would increase together with the total computing power available in the Bitcoin network, which is in turn affected by the number of Bitcoin mining machines in operation. As a result, a strong growth in promotion of Bitcoin computing power supply services can contribute to further growth in the total computing power in the network, thereby driving up the difficulty of Bitcoin mining and resulting in downward pressure on the expected economic return of Bitcoin mining and the demand for, and pricing of, our products and services.
 
While we plan to install our own mining machines as part of our plan to expand our self-mining business, our business is highly dependent on acquiring a sufficient number of cryptocurrency mining equipment from our suppliers. We may not be able to obtain new mining hardware or purchase such hardware at competitive prices during times of high demand, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
While we plan to install our own mining machines as part of our plan to expand our self-mining business, our business is highly dependent upon cryptocurrency mining equipment suppliers providing an adequate supply of new generation cryptocurrency mining machines at economical prices to support our self-mining, hash rate sharing and hosting business lines and our customers’ mining activities. The growth in our business is directly related to increased demand for hosting services and cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin which is dependent in large part on the availability of new generation mining machines offered for sale at a price conducive to profitable cryptocurrency mining, as well as the trading price of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. The market price and availability of new mining machines fluctuates with the price of Bitcoin and can be volatile.
 
Historically, an increase in interest and demand for cryptocurrencies has led to a shortage of mining hardware and increased prices. In addition, as more companies seek to enter the mining industry, the demand for machines may outpace supply and create mining machine equipment shortages. There is no assurance that cryptocurrency mining equipment suppliers will be able to keep pace with any surge in demand for mining equipment. We and our customers and the potential customers of our hosting service may in the future experience difficulty in obtaining new equipment or replacement components for our and their existing equipment, including graphics processing units and application-specific integrated circuit chipsets and computer servers, which in the future may have, a material impact on the demand for our products and services and associated revenue. Further, we may have little or no recourse in the event a mining machine manufacturer or distributor defaults on our mining machine delivery commitments. If we and our customers are not able to obtain a sufficient number of cryptocurrency mining machines at favorable prices, our growth expectations, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively impacted.
 
We rely on supplies from a single or a group of third-party electricity, mining pool services and mining machines providers, and any negative incidents caused by actions taken by them that are outside of our control may adversely impact our business and results of operations.
 
To some extent, we currently rely on a single or a group of third-party suppliers and service providers to provide quality services to customers. Our brand and reputation may be harmed by actions taken by such third parties that are outside of our control. For example, we are currently contracting with one electricity supplier to support each of our mining datacenters in Norway, as well as Texas, Tennessee and Washington in the United States, respectively. Pursuant to our agreement with our electricity supplier for the mining datacenter in Hustadvika municipality, Norway, we agree to purchase power at the amount and price designated in the contract, during the period from January 1, 2022 to December 31, 2024, which is the term of this agreement. Pursuant to our agreement with our electricity supplier for the mining datacenter in Tydal municipality, Norway, we agree to purchase power at the amount and price designated in the contract, during the period from September 1, 2022 to December 31, 2024, which is the term of this agreement. Both agreements can be completely terminated with zero load ending at midnight of the final day in each quarter. Pursuant to our agreement with our electricity supplier for the mining datacenter in Texas, the supplier shall provide electricity to meet full electricity requirements of the two electricity service accounts identified by us. This contract is effective through December 31, 2027 and is terminable in the event of default. Pursuant to our agreement with our electricity supplier for mining datacenter in Tennessee, the supplier shall make power available to us in the amount designated in the contract. Valid through July 31, 2026, this contract is automatically renewed for additional five years upon expiration of the initial term, unless either party notifies the other in writing not less than 60 days prior to the expiration date of the initial term or any renewal term of its desire to terminate this contract on such expiration date. Pursuant to our agreement with our electricity supplier for mining datacenter in Washington, the supplier shall provide power and associated energy to meet our demand at rates that are subject to adjustment, modification, change or replacement from time to time. This contract remains effective until terminated upon six months prior written notice by us. While we believe that alternative suppliers are readily available in the market, changing to a new supplier may require additional costs and time. We also source mining machines from a wide variety of manufacturers and traders with whom we have built relationships over the years. The prices of mining machines were negotiated on an individual basis, and the agreements typically allow for termination upon either party’s uncured material breach, suspension of all or a substantial part of its business, deterioration of its financial position, or upon insolvency proceedings against either party. In addition, these agreements may include indemnification provisions either for benefit of us, or for benefit of the manufacturers and traders. Each agreement requires manufacturers and traders to repair or replace the defective part/component of mining machines at no charge to us. Despite the measures we have taken to ensure the quality of products and services provided by third-party suppliers and service providers, to the extent they are unable to maintain their production facilities’ efficiency, supply sufficient products in a timely manner, or provide satisfactory products and services to our customers, which may be due to events that are beyond our or their control, such as manufacturing defects, we may suffer reputational damage, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. While we have not experienced such incidents that had a material adverse impact on our business as of the date of this annual report, as such incidents are beyond our control, there is no assurance that such incidents will not occur in the future regardless of the measures we have taken, and will take, to maintain the quality products and services provided by third-party suppliers and service providers. If we are unable to effectively address these risks, our brand image, reputation and financial performance may be materially and adversely affected.
 
Additionally, we utilize third-party mining pools to receive our mining rewards from a given network. Mining pools allow mining participants to combine their processing power, which increases the chances of solving a block and getting paid by the network. The rewards are distributed by the pool operators, proportionally to our contribution to the pools’ overall mining power used to solve a block. We entered into agreements with mining pool operators who deliver cryptocurrency rewards to accounts of us or our customers in exchange for hash rate provided by us and our Cloud Hash Rate customers. The agreements are terminable through mutual agreement between both parties or due to a breach of the contract which is not cured within two days upon receiving notice from the non-breaching party. Due to the competitiveness of the global mining pool industry, we believe that we will be able to promptly access alternative mining pools if needed. Nevertheless, we are dependent on the accuracy of a mining pool operator’s record keeping to accurately record the total processing power provided to the pool for a given Bitcoin or other cryptocurrency mining application in order to assess the proportion of that total processing power we provided. While we have internal methods of tracking both our power provided and the total power used by the pool, the mining pool operator uses its own record-keeping to determine our proportion of a given reward. We have little means of recourse against the mining pool operator if we determine the proportion of the reward paid out to us by a mining pool operator is incorrect, other than leaving the pools or entering into a lengthy negotiation with the third-party mining pools to get back the fair rewards. If we are unable to consistently obtain accurate proportionate rewards from our mining pool operators, we may experience reduced reward for our efforts, which would have an adverse effect on our business and operations.
 
Failure to keep our solutions and services up-to-date in line with the approximate level of market demand could cause us to lose sales, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
In order to operate our business successfully and meet the demands and expectations of our customers, we must maintain a certain level of equipment, including but not limited to mining machines, to sustain large scale service when required. Furthermore, we are required to maintain an appropriate level of equipment for any unexpected emergency substitute or in preparation of potential outage and sudden service loss. However, forecasts are inherently uncertain. If our forecasted demand is lower than actual demand or our risk estimate is much sufficient, we may not be able to provide our customers with sufficient hash rate sharing or hosting services in a timely manner, and we may lose sales and market share to our competitors.
 
We may be unable to execute our growth strategies or effectively maintain our rapid growth trends.

We have experienced growth and expanded our business in recent years. We recorded total net revenue of US$394.7 million, US$333.3 million and US$368.6 million in 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. We incurred a net loss of US$60.4 million and US$56.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023, respectively, and generated a net profit of US$82.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. We may not be able to grow our revenue and achieve profitability in the future if we are not able to successfully execute our product development and diversification, geographic expansion and other growth plans. In addition, our rapid growth has placed and will continue to place significant demands on our management and our administrative, operational, research and development and financial resources.
 
To accomplish our growth strategies and manage the future growth of our operations, we will be required to enhance our research and development capabilities, improve our operational and financial systems, and expand, train and manage our growing employee base. Furthermore, we need to maintain and expand our relationships with our customers, suppliers, research institutions, third-party manufacturers and other third parties. Moreover, as we introduce new products or services or enter new markets, we may face new market, technological, operational and regulatory risks and challenges with which we are unfamiliar. Our current and planned operations, personnel, systems, internal procedures and controls may not be adequate to support our future growth and expansion. In addition, the success of our growth strategies depends on a number of external factors, such as the development of the cryptocurrency market and the demand for Bitcoin, the level of competition we face and evolving customer behavior and preferences. If we are unable to execute our growth strategies or manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to capture market opportunities or respond to competitive pressures, which may materially and adversely affect our business prospects and results of operations.
 
Moreover, our ability to generate profits and/or positive cash flow is correlated to the current and future market prices of cryptocurrencies and a decline in the market prices for cryptocurrencies could negatively impact our future operations. However, we believe that, as compared to many other participants in the crypto assets markets, we are more resilient to cryptocurrency price volatility as our “hash rate sharing” and “hosting” businesses allow us to smooth the impact of cryptocurrency price volatility.
 
In addition, we also face risks associated with the expansion of our operations overseas. See the section entitled “- We face risks associated with the expansion of our scale of operations globally, and if we are unable to effectively manage these risks, they could impair our ability to expand our business abroad.” If we are not able to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively, our expansion may not be successful and our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
 
We face risks associated with the expansion of our scale of operations globally, and if we are unable to effectively manage these risks, they could impair our ability to expand our business abroad.
 
We operate our business globally, with customers and suppliers located in various countries. As we continue to grow our business and expand our operations globally, we will continue to sell our products and services into new jurisdictions in which we have limited or no experience and in which our brands may be less recognized. Our global operation exposes us to a number of risks, including:
 

a limited customer base and limited sales and relationships with international customers;
 

difficulty in managing multinational operations;
 

competitors in overseas markets who have stronger ties with local customers and greater resources;
 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
 

challenges in providing customer products and services and support in these markets;
 

challenges in managing our overseas sales force and implementing sales strategies effectively;
 

unexpected transportation delays or interruptions or increases in international transportation costs;
 

difficulties in and costs of exporting products overseas while complying with the different commercial, legal and regulatory requirements of the overseas markets in which we offer our products and services;
 

regulations, changes to regulation, regulatory uncertainty in or inconsistent regulations across various jurisdictions that may implicate cryptocurrency mining and other cryptocurrency activities;
 

difficulty in ensuring the compliance with the sanctions imposed by The Office of Financial Assets Control of the U.S. Department of Treasury (“OFAC”), the European Union or the United Nations Security Council on various foreign states, organizations and individuals;
 

inability to obtain, maintain or enforce intellectual property rights in all the jurisdictions we operate in;
 

inability to effectively enforce contractual or legal rights or intellectual property rights in certain jurisdictions under which we operate;
 

changes in a specific country or region’s political or economic conditions or policies; and
 

governmental policies favoring domestic companies in certain foreign markets or trade barriers including export requirements, tariffs, taxes and other restrictions and charges. In particular, there have been concerns over the worldwide populism trend that call for protectionism trade policy and potential international trade disputes, all of which could cause turbulence in the international markets. These government policies or trade barriers could increase the prices of our products and services and make us less competitive in such countries.
 
If we are unable to effectively manage these risks, our ability to operate and expand our business will be impaired, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
 
As we continue to expand and localize our international activities, our obligations to comply with the laws, rules, regulations and policies of a variety of jurisdictions will increase and we may be subject to investigations and enforcement actions by U.S. and non-U.S. regulators and governmental authorities.
 
As we expand and localize our international activities, we have become increasingly obligated to comply with the laws, rules, regulations, policies and legal interpretations not only the jurisdictions in which we operate but also those into which we offer services on a cross-border basis. Laws regulating financial services, the internet, mobile technologies, crypto, and related technologies outside the United States often impose different, more specific, or even conflicting obligations on us, as well as broader liability.
 
Regulators worldwide frequently study each other’s approaches to the regulation of the crypto economy. Consequently, developments in any jurisdiction may influence other jurisdictions. New developments in one jurisdiction may be extended to additional services and other jurisdictions. As a result, the risks created by any new law or regulation in one jurisdiction are magnified by the potential that they may be replicated, affecting our business in another place or involving another service. Conversely, if regulations diverge worldwide, we may face difficulty adjusting our products, services, and other aspects of our business with the same effect. These risks are heightened as we face increased competitive pressure from other similarly situated businesses that engage in regulatory arbitrage to avoid the compliance costs associated with regulatory changes.
 
The complexity of U.S. federal and state and international regulatory and enforcement regimes, coupled with the global scope of our operations and the evolving global regulatory environment, could result in a single event prompting a large number of overlapping investigations and legal and regulatory proceedings by multiple government authorities in different jurisdictions. Any of the foregoing could, individually or in the aggregate, harm our reputation, damage our brands and business, and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Due to the uncertain application of existing laws and regulations, it is possible that, despite our regulatory and legal analysis concluding that certain products and services are currently unregulated, such products or services may indeed be subject to financial regulation, licensing, or authorization obligations that we have not obtained or with which we have not complied. As a result, we are at a heightened risk of enforcement action, litigation, regulatory, and legal scrutiny which could lead to sanctions, cease, and desist orders, or other penalties and censures which could significantly and adversely affect our continued operations and financial condition.
 
Delays in the expansion of existing mining datacenters or the construction of new mining datacenters or significant cost overruns could present significant risks to our business and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
The daily operations of all our business lines require the support of our mining datacenters, with a highly specialized infrastructure and considerable, reliable power in order to compete effectively. We intend to increase our mining capacity and increase substantially the number of mining machines we operate. In order to meet our financial plan, we need to expand our existing mining datacenters or obtain suitable land to build new mining datacenters. We may face challenges in obtaining suitable land, as we need to work closely with the local power suppliers and local governments of the places where our proposed facilitates are located. Delays in actions that require the assistance of such third parties, in receiving required permits and approvals or in mediations with local communities, if any, may negatively impact our construction timelines and budget or result in any new facilities not being completed at all.
 
We plan to expand our footprints to more mining datacenters across the globe to increase our total capacity to approximately 1,970MW, including 575MW power supply currently under construction and 500MW power supply “in the pipeline,” contracted or negotiated but not yet under active construction, as of February 29, 2024. Such expansion and construction require us to rely on the experience of one or more designers, general contractors and subcontractors, and such designers or contractors may experience financial or other problems during the design or construction process. We may also experience quality control issues as we implement any upgrades in our hosting capacity through the installation and maintenance of chipsets and servers or new cooling technologies such as immersion and water curtain cooling. our business will be negatively impacted if we are unable to run our mining operations in a way that is technologically advanced, economically and energy- efficient and temperature controlled. If we are unsuccessful, we will damage our mining machines and the mining machines of third parties and the profitability of our mining operations.
 
If we experience significant delays in the supply of power required to support any mining datacenter expansion or construction, the progress of such projects could deviate from our original plans, which could cause material and negative effects on our revenue growth, profitability and results of operations. Any material delay in completing these projects, or any substantial cost increases or quality issues in connection with these projects, could materially delay our ability to supply cloud hash rate and deliver our hosting capacity, cause us to incur penalties under hosting contracts, result in reduced order volume and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Any failure of our solutions or services to meet the necessary quality standards could adversely affect our reputation, business and results of operation.
 
The quality of the products and services we are providing is critical to the success of our business and depends significantly on the effectiveness of our and our manufacturing service providers’ quality control systems. In our efforts to quickly meet new market trends and demand and adopt new technologies, our products and services may not have adequate time to go through our normal rigorous testing procedures and final inspection, which could result in instances where our products and services cannot reach the required performance standard, or our products and services are found to be defective or significantly unsatisfying. These instances could result in our customers suffering losses. Defects detected before products and services performance to our customers may result in additional costs for remediation and rework. Defects detected after the performance of our products and services may result in our incurring further costs relating to inspection, installation or remediation, which may result in damages to our reputation, loss of customers, government fines and disputes and litigation.
 
On the other hand, we may have to turn to less reputable suppliers if we cannot source adequate equipment or other supplies from our regular suppliers. Under such circumstances, the quality of the equipment may suffer and could cause performance issues in our products and services. Shortages of supplies could result in reduced production or delays in production, as well as an increase in costs, which may negatively affect our abilities to fulfill orders or provide timely services to customers, as well as our customer relationships and profitability. Supplies shortages may also increase our costs of revenue because we may be required to pay higher prices for products in short supply, without being able to pass such cost to customers. As a result, our business, results of operations and reputation could be materially and adversely affected.
 
Power outage or shortages, labor disputes and other factors may result in constraints on our business activities.
 
Historically, we have not experienced constraints on our business activities, including at our mining datacenters, due to power outage or shortages, labor disputes or other factors. However, there can be no assurance that our operations will not be affected by power outage or shortages, labor disputes or other factors in the future, thereby causing material disruptions and delays in our delivery schedule. In such an event, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
 
If we are unable to maintain or enhance our brand recognition, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
 
Maintaining and enhancing the recognition, image and acceptance of our brand are important to our ability to differentiate our products and services from and to compete effectively with our peers. As we rely heavily on word-of-mouth branding, our brand image could be jeopardized if we fail to maintain high product and service quality, pioneer and keep pace with evolving technology trends, or timely fulfil the orders for our products and services. If we fail to promote our brand or to maintain or enhance the brand recognition and awareness among our customers, or if we are subject to events or negative allegations affecting our brand image or publicly perceived position of our brand, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
 
We may be at a higher risk of litigation and other legal proceedings due to heightened regulatory scrutiny of the cryptocurrency industry, which could ultimately be resolved against us, requiring material future cash payments or charges, and accordingly impair our financial condition and results of operations.
 
The size, nature and complexity of our business could make us susceptible to various claims, both in litigation and binding arbitration proceedings, legal proceedings, and government investigations, due to the heightened regulatory scrutiny following the disruptions in the crypto asset markets in 2022. We believe that since cryptocurrency mining, and the digital asset industry generally, is a relatively new business sector, we are more likely subject to government investigation and regulatory determination, particularly following the cryptocurrency market participant bankruptcies throughout calendar year 2022 described elsewhere herein. Any claims, regulatory proceedings or litigation that could arise in the course of our business could have a material adverse effect on us, our business or operations, or the industry as a whole.
 
We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property rights and other proprietary rights, which could have a material adverse effect on business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We may not be able to obtain broad protection in Singapore, the United States or internationally for all of our existing and future intellectual property and other proprietary rights, and we may not be able to obtain effective protection for our intellectual property and other proprietary rights in every country in which we operate. Protecting our intellectual property rights and other proprietary rights may require significant expenditure of our financial, managerial and operational resources. Moreover, the steps that we may take to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights may not be adequate to protect such rights or prevent third parties from infringing or misappropriating such rights. Any of our intellectual property rights and other proprietary rights, whether registered, unregistered, issued or unissued, may be challenged by others or invalidated through administrative proceedings and/or litigation.
 
We may be required to spend significant resources to secure, maintain, monitor and protect our intellectual property rights and other proprietary rights. Despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon, misappropriating or otherwise violating our intellectual property rights and other proprietary rights. We may initiate claims, administrative proceedings and/or litigation against others for infringement, misappropriation or violation of our intellectual property rights or other proprietary rights to enforce and/or maintain the validity of such rights. Any such action, if initiated, whether or not it is resolved in our favor, could result in significant expense to us, and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We may face intellectual property infringement claims or other related disputes, which could be time-consuming, costly to defend or settle and result in the loss of significant rights and lower sales.
 
As is typical in the cryptocurrency industry, we may be subject to infringement claims from time to time or otherwise become aware of potentially relevant patents or other intellectual property rights held by other parties that may cover some of our technology, products and services. The cryptocurrency industry is characterized by companies that hold large numbers of patents and other intellectual property rights and that vigorously pursue, protect and enforce these rights. Patent litigation has increased in recent years owing to increased assertions made by intellectual property licensing entities and increasing competition and overlap of product functionality in our markets. Additionally, we have in the past entered and may continue in the future to enter into licensing agreements with third parties for the use of their proprietary technologies, primarily software development tools, in the development of our products and services. As with any business relationship, we may face disputes and lawsuits related to those intellectual property licensing agreements. As our operations continue to grow in size and scale, the likelihood of us becoming involved in intellectual property related lawsuits and disputes to protect or defend our intellectual property rights and the use of third-party intellectual property rights will increase.
 
In addition, it is extremely difficult for us to monitor all of the patent applications that have been filed in the United States or in other countries or regions and whether, if such pending patents are granted, such patents would have a material and adverse effect on our business if our service offering were to infringe upon them.
 
Other third parties may file claims against us or our customers alleging that our products and services, processes, or technologies infringe third-party patents or IP rights. Regardless of their merits or resolutions, such claims could be costly to defend or settle and could divert the efforts and attention of our management and technical personnel. In addition, some of our customer agreements in the future may require us to indemnify and defend our customers from third-party infringement claims and to pay damages in the case of adverse rulings. As such, claims of this sort also could harm our relationships with our customers and may deter future customers from doing business with us. We do not know whether we could prevail in any such proceeding given the complex technical issues and inherent uncertainties involved in intellectual property litigation. If any pending or future proceedings result in an adverse outcome, we could be required to:
 

cease the use of the infringing equipment, processes or technologies;
 

stop providing products and services to certain geographic areas;
 

pay substantial damages for infringement;
 

expend significant resources to develop non-infringing processes, technologies or products;
 

license technology from the third-party claiming infringement, which license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all;
 

cross-license our technology to a competitor in order to resolve an infringement claim, which could weaken our ability to compete with that competitor; or
 

pay substantial damages to our customers to disruption of products and services they subscribed or replace the type of series with non-infringing equipment involved.
 
Any of the foregoing results could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
The loss of any member of our senior management team, or our failure to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, especially our design and technical personnel, could impair our ability to grow our business and effectively execute our business strategy.
 
Since our inception, the growth and expansion of our business operations have been dependent upon the business strategies and foresight of our senior management. Our future success depends, in a large part, on the continued contributions of our senior management team, specifically Mr. Jihan Wu. In addition, our future success depends on our ability to retain, attract and incentivize qualified personnel, including our management, sales, marketing, finance and especially research and development personnel. As the driver of our technological and product innovations, our research and development personnel represent a very significant asset of us. As the technology in the cryptocurrency industry is advancing at a quick pace, there is an increasing need for skilled engineers. Many companies across the world are struggling to find suitable candidates for their research and development positions. The process of hiring employees with the combination of skills and characteristics required to implement our strategy can be extremely competitive and time-consuming. We cannot assure you that we will be able to attract adequate personnel as we continue to pursue our business strategies.
 
Moreover, there is no assurance that we will be able to retain key existing employees. The loss of any of our founder, senior management or research and development team members could harm our ability to implement our business strategies and respond to the rapidly changing market conditions in which we operate, or could result in other operating risks. The loss of one or more of our key employees, especially our key design and technical personnel, or our inability to retain, attract and motivate qualified designs and technical personnel, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We may be vulnerable to security breaches, which could disrupt our operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
A party who is able to compromise the physical security measures protecting our facilities could cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations and misappropriate our property or the property of our customers. Such a compromise could be particularly harmful to our brand and reputation. We may be required to expend significant capital and resources to protect against such threats or to alleviate problems caused by breaches in security. As techniques used to breach security change frequently and are often not recognized until launched against a target, we may not be able to implement new security measures in a timely manner or, if and when implemented, we may not be certain whether these measures could be circumvented. Any breaches that may occur could expose us to increased risk of lawsuits, regulatory penalties, loss of existing or potential customers, harm to our reputation and increases in our security costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
In addition, any assertions of alleged security breaches or systems failure made against us, whether true or not, could harm our reputation, cause us to incur substantial legal fees and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Whether or not any such assertion actually develops into litigation, our management may be required to devote significant time and attention to dispute resolution (through litigation, settlement or otherwise), which would detract from our management’s ability to focus on our business. Any such resolution could involve the payment of damages or expenses by us, which may be significant. In addition, any such resolution could involve our agreement with terms that restrict the operation of our business. Any such resolution, including the resources exhausted in connection therewith, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Furthermore, security breaches, computer malware and computer hacking attacks have been a prevalent concern in the Bitcoin exchange market since the launch of the Bitcoin network. Any security breach caused by hacking, which involves efforts to gain unauthorized access to information or systems, or to cause intentional malfunctions or loss or corruption of data, software, hardware or other computer equipment, and the inadvertent transmission of computer viruses, could harm our business operations or result in loss of our assets.
 
We may be exposed to cybersecurity threats and hacks, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
The threats to network and data security are increasingly diverse and sophisticated. Despite our efforts and processes to prevent breaches, our computer servers and computer systems may be vulnerable to cybersecurity risks, including denial-of-service attacks, physical or electronic break-ins, employee theft or misuse and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering with our computer servers and computer systems. The preventive actions we take to reduce the risk of cyber incidents and protect our information technology and networks may be insufficient to repel a major cyber-attack in the future. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss or damage to our network, in unauthorized disclosure of confidential information or in a loss of our cryptocurrencies, it could cause significant damage to our reputation, lead to claims against us and ultimately have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, we may be required to incur significant costs to protect against damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future.
 
We may engage in acquisitions or strategic alliances in the future that could disrupt our business, result in increased expenses, reduce our financial resources and cause dilution to our shareholders. We cannot assure you that such acquisitions or strategic alliances may be successfully implemented.
 
We may look for potential acquisitions or strategic alliances in the future to expand our business. However, we may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates, complete acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all, or integrate any acquired business, products or technologies into our operations. If we do complete acquisitions, they may be viewed negatively by customers or investors and they may not enable us to strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals. In addition, any acquisitions that we make could lead to difficulties in integrating personnel, technologies and operations from the acquired businesses and in retaining and motivating key personnel from these businesses. Moreover, acquisitions may disrupt our ongoing operations, divert management from day-to-day responsibilities and increase our expenses. Future acquisitions may reduce our cash available for operations and other uses, and could result in increases in amortization expenses related to identifiable intangible assets acquired, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt. We cannot predict the number, timing or size of future acquisitions, or the effect that any such acquisitions might have on our operating results.
 
Any global systemic economic and financial crisis could negatively affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
 
Any prolonged slowdown in the global economy may have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. The global financial markets have experienced significant disruptions since 2008 and the United States, Europe and other economies have experienced periods of recession. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States. There have also been concerns over unrest in Ukraine, the Middle East and Africa, which have resulted in volatility in financial and other markets, and concerns over the aftermath of the United Kingdom leaving the European Union as well as the significant potential changes to United States trade policies, treaties and tariffs. There were and could be in the future a number of domino effects from such turmoil on our business, including significant decreases in orders from our customers, insolvency of key suppliers resulting in product delays, inability of customers to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products and services and/or customer insolvencies, and counterparty failures negatively impacting our operations. Any systemic economic or financial crisis could cause revenue for the mining industry as a whole to decline dramatically and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
 
Changes in international trade policies and international barriers to trade may have an adverse effect on our business and expansion plans.
 
We have provided worldwide products and services to a number of countries outside of Singapore and derive sales from exporting to those countries, and we intend to continue to sell our current and future products to countries outside of Singapore. Revenue generated from customers located in the United States accounted for 16.6%, 5.1% and 16.0% of our total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. Further, we rely on certain overseas suppliers, including suppliers in the United States, for the supply of certain equipment and tools, such as mining machines. Changes to trade policies, treaties and tariffs in or affecting the jurisdictions in which we operate and to which we sell our products and services, or the perception that these changes could occur, could adversely affect the financial and economic conditions in those jurisdictions, as well as our international sales, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our business and prospect may be negatively affected by changes in governmental policies including sanctions and export controls administered by other countries’ governments, including those imposed as a result of an increasing tense relationship of the political or economic relations among major economic groups and other geopolitical challenges. Although we currently only operate our business in certain countries, there is no assurance that the governmental authorities may take certain possible measures or restrictions towards the products and services we are providing or will provide, which could result in an adverse impact on our business and prospect if we were not able to find substitute customer group with the same quality demand from other countries. Further, some of our customers may experience undue hardship in purchasing or furthering the business relationship with us as a result of the abnormal international trade relations, which could materially and adversely affect our business performance.
 
In addition, countries, which are subject to other countries’ sanctions or tariff impositions may further retaliate, in response to new trade policies implemented by such foreign governments. Such retaliation measures may further escalate the tensions between the two countries, which may have a negative impact on the economies of not merely the two countries concerned, but the global economy as a whole. As a result of any major economic downturn, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
 
Our prepayments to suppliers may subject us to counterparty risk associated with such suppliers and negatively affect our liquidity and cash position.
 
We are required to prepay some of our suppliers before the service is provided to secure the supplier’s production capacity. As of December 31, 2022 and 2023, the balance of prepayments we made to our suppliers amounted to US$9.7 million and US$35.2 million, respectively. The amount of our prepayment can significantly increase as we continue to pursue technological advancement. We are subject to counterparty risk exposure to our suppliers. Any failure by our suppliers to perform their contractual obligation in a timely manner and/or with our requested quality may result in us not being able to fulfill customers’ orders accordingly. In such an event, we may not be able to regain the prepayment in a timely manner or in full, even though our suppliers are obligated to return such prepayments under specified circumstances as previously agreed upon. Furthermore, if the cash outflows for the prepayments significantly exceed the cash inflows during any period, our future liquidity position will be adversely affected.
 
Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change may result in environmental taxes, charges, assessments or penalties and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
The effects of human activity on global climate change have attracted considerable public and scientific attention, as well as the attention of the United States and other foreign governments. Efforts are being made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, particularly those from coal combustion power plants, some of which plants we may rely upon for power. The added cost of any environmental taxes, charges, assessments or penalties levied on such power plants could be passed on to us, increasing the cost to run our hosting facilities.
 
On November 23, 2022, the governor of New York signed into law a two year moratorium on new or renewed permits for certain electricity-generating facilities that use fossil fuel and provide energy for proof-of- work digital asset mining operations. While this action does not directly impact our current operations, it may be the beginning of a new wave of climate change regulations aimed at preventing or reducing the growth of Bitcoin mining in jurisdictions in the United States, including potentially jurisdictions in which we now operate or may in the future operate. Such action could also demonstrate the beginning of a regional or global regulatory trend in response to environmental and energy preservation or other concerns surrounding crypto assets, and similar action in a jurisdiction in which we operate or in general could have a devastating effect on our operations. Any further enactment of laws or promulgations of regulations regarding greenhouse gas emissions by the United States, Norway, or any other domestic or foreign jurisdiction in which we conduct business could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
 
If we experience difficulty in collecting our trade receivables, our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations would be negatively impacted.
 
We derive our revenue from the sale of products and services and are subject to counterparty risks such as our customer’s inability to pay. As of December 31, 2022 and 2023, our trade receivables amounted to US$18.3 million and US$17.3 million, respectively. There can be no assurance that we will be able to collect our trade receivables on a timely basis, and our trade receivable turnover days may increase, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our operations and those of our production partners and customers are vulnerable to natural disasters and other events beyond our control, the occurrence of which may have an adverse effect on the supply chain of our suppliers and on our facilities, personnel and results of operations.
 
Our business could be adversely affected by natural disasters or outbreaks of epidemics. We have not adopted any written contingency plans to combat any future natural disasters, such as floods and mudslides, or outbreaks of avian flu, H1N1 flu, SARS or any other epidemic. These natural disasters, outbreaks of contagious diseases, and other adverse public health developments in countries where our computing power facilities are located or any other countries or regions in which we conduct business could severely disrupt our business operations by damaging our network infrastructure or information technology system or impacting the productivity of our workforce, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought a significantly negative impact on the global economy, industry and market conditions. The ongoing development and the global control on the pandemic are unclear, which may increase the instability of our development, materially and adversely affecting our results of operations.
 
Since December 2019, the outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 has materially and adversely affected the global economy. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused series of consequences from many perspectives and may continue to have a prolonged impact by:
 

impairing our ability to renew and maintain our relationships with existing customers;
 

causing our existing customers to substantially reduce the quantity of products and services to which they subscribe, seek price concessions, or go out of business, any of which would harm our revenue;
 

resulting in some of our customers failing to comply with the terms of their agreements, including payment terms, due to economic uncertainty, financial hardship, and even failure of their businesses, which could result in us being required to take action to collect payments, terminate their subscriptions for our services, and increase accounts receivable and bad debt, any of which would increase our expenses and harm our revenue and results of operations;
 

making it more difficult for us to sell increased services or functionality to our existing customers;
 

delaying prospective customers’ decisions to subscribe to our solutions, increase the length of sales cycles, or slow the typical growth in the use of our solutions once customers have initially deployed our solutions;
 

harming our ability to effectively market and sell our solutions as a result of travel restrictions and social distancing orders;
 

delaying the introduction of enhancements to our solutions and market acceptance of any new features and products;
 

harming our ability to grow our worldwide sales and operations;
 

harming our ability to recruit, onboard and successfully integrate new employees, including members of our direct sales force;
 

impacting the health and safety of our employees, including our senior management team, and their ability to perform services;
 

causing our management team to continue to commit significant time, attention and resources to monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic and seeking to mitigate its effect on our business and workforce.
 
It is uncertain how long and how severely the COVID-19 pandemic may continue to impact us. Significant uncertainties associated with the coronavirus remain, including with respect to the availability and efficacy of vaccines, the duration of the pandemic, the emergence of variant strains of COVID-19, and actions that may be taken by governmental authorities to contain the coronavirus or to treat its impact. The full impact of the coronavirus is unknown at this time. If the pandemic continues and lasts for a prolonged period in the regions where we operate, such as cases resurgence in certain areas, the economy could suffer substantially from the measures and restrictions taken to combat the virus, which would, in turn, have an adverse impact on our business prospects. Any significant disruption resulting from this or similar epidemics on a large scale or over a prolonged period of time could significantly interrupt our business until we would be able to resume normal business operations, which will negatively affect our financial condition. To the extent COVID-19 adversely affects our business, financial condition and results of operations, it may also heighten some of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.
 
Risks Related to Cryptocurrencies
 
Because there has been limited precedent set for financial accounting for Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, the determinations that we have made for how to account for cryptocurrencies transactions may be subject to change.
 
The accounting rules and regulations that we must comply with are complex and subject to interpretation by the IASB, the SEC, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and may even affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement or effectiveness of a change. Further, there has been limited precedents for the financial accounting of cryptocurrencies and related valuation and revenue recognition, and no official guidance has been provided by the IASB or the SEC. As such, there remains significant uncertainty on how companies can account for cryptocurrency transactions, cryptocurrencies, and related revenue. Uncertainties in or changes to in regulatory or financial accounting standards could result in the need to changing our accounting methods and restate our financial statements and impair our ability to provide timely and accurate financial information, which could adversely affect our financial statements, result in a loss of investor confidence, and more generally impact our business, operating results, and financial condition.
 
Any loss or destruction of a private key required to access our cryptocurrency is irreversible. We also may temporarily lose access to our cryptocurrencies.
 
Cryptocurrencies are each accessible and controllable only by the possessor of both the unique public key and private key associated with the cryptocurrency, wherein the public and private keys are held in an offline or online digital wallet. To the extent a private key is lost, destroyed or otherwise compromised and no backup of the private key is available, we will be unable to access the applicable cryptocurrency associated with that private key and the private key cannot be restored. As a result, any cryptocurrencies associated with such key could be irretrievably lost. Any loss of private keys relating to digital wallets used to store the applicable cryptocurrencies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
In addition, we may temporarily lose access to our cryptocurrencies as a result of software or systems upgrades or maintenance. In this case, we would likely rely on third parties to assist in restoring our access, and there is no assurance such third parties will be able to restore access on a timely basis, or at all. Any temporary loss, if it occurs, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Bitcoin exchanges and wallets, and to a lesser extent, the Bitcoin network itself, may suffer from hacking and fraud risks, which may adversely erode user confidence in Bitcoin which would decrease the demand for our products and services. Further, digital asset exchanges on which crypto assets trade are relatively new and largely unregulated, and thus may be exposed to fraud and failure. Incorrect or fraudulent cryptocurrency transactions may be irreversible.
 
Bitcoin transactions are entirely digital and, as with any virtual system, are at risk from hackers, malware and operational glitches. Hackers can target Bitcoin exchanges and Bitcoin transactions, to gain access to thousands of accounts and digital wallets where Bitcoins are stored. Bitcoin transactions and accounts are not insured by any type of government program and all Bitcoin transactions are permanent because there is no third party or payment processor. Bitcoin has suffered from hacking and cyber-theft as such incidents have been reported by several cryptocurrency exchanges and miners, highlighting concerns about the security of Bitcoin and therefore affecting its demand and price.
 
To the extent that cryptocurrency exchanges or other trading venues are involved in fraud or experience security failures or other operational issues, a reduction in cryptocurrency prices could occur. Cryptocurrency market prices depend, directly or indirectly, on the prices set on exchanges and other trading venues, which are new and, in most cases, largely unregulated as compared to established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies.
 
For example, during the past three years, a number of Bitcoin exchanges have been closed due to fraud, business failure or security breaches. In many of these instances, the customers of the closed Bitcoin exchanges were not compensated or made whole for the partial or complete losses of their account balances in such Bitcoin exchanges. While smaller exchanges are less likely to have the infrastructure and capitalization that provide larger exchanges with additional stability, larger exchanges may be more likely to be appealing targets for hackers and “malware” (i.e., software used or programmed by attackers to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems) and may be more likely to be targets of regulatory enforcement action.
 
Further, digital asset exchanges on which cryptocurrencies trade are relatively new and, in most cases, largely unregulated. Many digital exchanges do not provide the public with significant information regarding their ownership structure, management teams, corporate practices or regulatory compliance. As a result, the marketplace may lose confidence in, or may experience problems relating to, cryptocurrency exchanges, including prominent exchanges handling a significant portion of the volume of digital asset trading. During 2022, a number of companies in the crypto industry have declared bankruptcy, including Compute North, Core Scientific, Alameda Research LLC, Celsius Network, Voyager Digital, Three Arrows, BlockFi, and FTX. In June 2022, Celsius began pausing all withdrawals and transfers between accounts on its platform, and in July 2022, it filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Further, in November 2022, FTX, one of the major cryptocurrency exchanges, also filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Such bankruptcies have contributed, at least in part, to further price decreases in Bitcoin, a loss of confidence in the participants of the digital asset ecosystem and negative publicity surrounding digital assets more broadly, and other participants and entities in the digital asset industry have been, and may continue to be, negatively affected. These events have also negatively impacted the liquidity of the digital assets markets as certain entities affiliated with FTX engaged in significant trading activity.
 
We have not been directly impacted by any of the bankruptcies in the crypto asset space throughout calendar year 2022, as we have no contractual privity or relationship to the relevant parties. However, we are dependent on the overall crypto assets industry, and such events have contributed, at least in part, to our peers’ stock price as well as the price of Bitcoin. If the liquidity of the digital assets markets continues to be negatively impacted, digital asset prices (including the price of Bitcoin) may continue to experience significant volatility and confidence in the digital asset markets may be further undermined. A perceived lack of stability in the digital asset exchange market and the closure or temporary shutdown of digital asset exchanges due to business failure, hackers or malware, government-mandated regulation, or fraud, may reduce confidence in digital asset networks and result in greater volatility in cryptocurrency values. These potential consequences of a digital asset exchange’s failure could adversely affect an investment in us, discourage overall participation in the cryptocurrency industry, and result in loss of customer demand for our products and services. Cryptocurrency investments may be subject to losses or impairments if cryptocurrency values decrease as a result of failure of any digital asset exchange, however, we do not anticipate to actively participate in such activities in the foreseeable future.
 
We may not have adequate sources of recovery if the cryptocurrencies held by us are lost, stolen or destroyed due to third-party cryptocurrencies custodial services or if we cannot redeem or withdraw our cryptocurrencies invested in crypto lending or investing activities. Such incidents could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Substantially all of our cryptocurrencies were held in custody by Matrix Finance and Technologies Holding Group and its subsidiaries (“Matrixport Group”), a related party, and our disposal of cryptocurrencies, at spot price on the date of disposal, was primarily to Matrixport Group. We believe that the security procedures that Matrixport Group utilizes, such as issuing username, password and hardware tokens, are reasonably designed to safeguard our Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies from theft, loss, destruction or other issues relating to hackers and technological attack. Nevertheless, the security procedures cannot guarantee the prevention of any loss due to a security breach, software defect or act of God that may be borne by us. If such cryptocurrencies are lost, stolen or destroyed under circumstances rendering a third party liable to us, it is possible that Matrixport Group may not have the financial resources or insurance sufficient to satisfy any or all of our claims against the third party, or have the ability to retrieve, restore or replace the lost, stolen or destroyed cryptocurrencies due to governing network protocols and the strength of the cryptographic systems associated with such cryptocurrencies. To the extent that we are unable to recover on any of our claims against any such third party, such loss could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
If such services are commercially available, we will consider adding regulated banks, rather than solely relying on crypto custodian, as the custodian for a material amount of our cryptocurrencies. Obtaining cryptocurrency custody services from a regulated bank may confer benefits such as improved security and reduced fraud. Nevertheless, until now, banks have generally declined to provide custody services for cryptocurrencies and other virtual assets, due to the absence of clarity on permissibility and on regulators’ views of these activities generally. On July 22, 2020, the U.S. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency released publicly an interpretive letter confirming the authority of a national bank to provide cryptocurrency custody services for customers, providing that a national bank engaging in such activities should develop and implement those activities consistent with sound risk management practices and align them with the bank’s overall business plans and strategies as set forth in the guidance. On January 27, 2023, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System released publicly a policy statement to interpret section 9(13) of the Federal Reserve Act, clarifying that the state member banks are not prohibited under the policy from providing safekeeping services for crypto-assets in a custodial capacity, if such activities are conducted in a safe and sound manner and in compliance with consumer, anti-money-laundering, and anti-terrorist-financing laws. However, it will take time for banks to start offering cryptocurrencies custodian services, and before then, we may have to continue to rely on crypto custodians, such as Matrixport Group, for our crypto custodian needs.
 
Historically, we have also lent cryptocurrency loans to Matrixport Group and purchased cryptocurrency wealth management products from Matrixport Group. Historically, we have not incurred or been exposed to any losses as a result of our relationship and transactions with Matrixport Group, and have never experienced any excessive redemptions, withdrawals, or a suspension of redemptions or withdrawals, of crypto assets from Matrixport Group or other exchanges or platforms. Participation in cryptocurrency lending and/or investment may subject us to counterparty risk, which may result in us losing part or all of our cryptocurrencies lent or invested. However, to further limit our counterparty risk, we currently are not engaged in, and do not anticipate to engage in crypto lending or investing activities in the foreseeable future.
 
Any material transaction between us and Matrixport Group or its subsidiaries is subject to our related person transaction policy. To the extent we fail to appropriately deal with any such conflicts of interests, it could negatively impact our reputation, the ability to raise additional funds and the willingness of counterparties to do business with us, all of which could have adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
 
The “halving” of rewards available on the Bitcoin network, or the reduction of rewards on other networks, has had and in the future could have a negative impact on our ability to generate revenue as our customers may not have an adequate incentive to continue transaction processing and customers may cease transaction processing operations altogether, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Under the current protocols governing the Bitcoin network, the reward for validating a new block on that network is cut in half from time to time, which has been referred to in our industry as the “halving.” When the Bitcoin network was first launched, the reward for validating a new block was 50 Bitcoin. In November 2012, the reward for validating a new block was reduced to 25 Bitcoin. In July 2016, the reward for validating a new block was reduced to 12.5 Bitcoin, and in May 2020, the reward was further reduced to 6.25 Bitcoin. The next halving for Bitcoin is expected in 2024 at block 840,000, when the reward will reduce to 3.125. In addition, other networks may operate under rules that, or may alter their rules to, limit the distribution of new cryptocurrencies. We, and to our knowledge, our potential hosting customers, currently rely on these rewards to generate a significant portion of our total revenue. If the award of cryptocurrencies for solving blocks and transaction fees are not sufficiently high, neither we nor our customers may have an adequate incentive to continue transaction processing and may cease transaction processing operations altogether, which as a result may significantly reduce demand for our hosting services. As a result, the halving of available rewards on the Bitcoin network, or any reduction of rewards on other networks, would have a negative impact on our revenue and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
In addition, the reduction of rewards may reduce our profit margins, which could result in us selling a substantial portion of our cryptocurrencies, which are subject to high volatility. If we are forced to sell cryptocurrencies at low prices, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Malicious actors or botnet may obtain control of more than 50% of the processing power on the Bitcoin or other cryptocurrency network.
 
If a malicious actor or botnet (a volunteer or hacked collection of computers controlled by networked software coordinating the actions of the computers) obtains a majority of the processing power dedicated to mining on the Bitcoin or other cryptocurrency network, it may be able to alter the blockchain on which the Bitcoin or other cryptocurrency network and most Bitcoin or other cryptocurrency transactions rely by constructing fraudulent blocks or preventing certain transactions from completing in a timely manner, or at all. The malicious actor or botnet could control, exclude, or modify the ordering of transactions, though it could not generate new cryptocurrencies or transactions using such control. The malicious actor could “double-spend” its own cryptocurrencies (i.e., spend the same cryptocurrencies in more than one transaction) and prevent the confirmation of other users’ transactions for so long as it maintained control. To the extent that such malicious actor or botnet did not yield its control of the processing power on the cryptocurrency network, or the cryptocurrency community did not reject the fraudulent blocks as malicious, reversing any changes made to the blockchain may not be possible.
 
Although there are no known reports of malicious activity or control of the Bitcoin blockchain achieved through controlling over 50% of the processing power on the network, it is believed that certain mining pools may have exceeded the 50% threshold. The possible crossing of the 50% threshold indicates a greater risk in that a single mining pool could exert authority over the validation of Bitcoin transactions. To the extent that the cryptocurrency ecosystems, including developers and administrators of mining pools, do not act to ensure greater decentralization of Bitcoin or other cryptocurrency mining processing power, the feasibility of a malicious actor obtaining control of the processing power on the cryptocurrency network will increase, which may adversely affect an investment in us.
 
If there are significant changes to the method of validating blockchain transactions, such changes could harm our self-mining business and reduce demand for our products and services.
 
New cryptocurrency transaction protocols are continuously being deployed, and existing and new protocols are in a state of constant change and development. While certain validation protocols currently employ a PoW consensus algorithm, whereby miners are required to expend significant amounts of electrical and computing power to solve complex mathematical problems in order to validate transactions and create new blocks in a blockchain, there may be a shift towards adopting alternative validating protocols. These protocols may include a PoS algorithm, PoC algorithm or any other algorithm based on a protocol other than PoW, which may decrease the reliance on computing power as an advantage to validating blocks. Our self-mining operations, and, to our knowledge, the operations of our potential hash rate sharing and hosting customers, are currently designed to primarily support a PoW consensus algorithm. Should the algorithm shift from a PoW validation method to others, mining would require less energy and may render any company that maintains advantages in the current climate (for example, from lower priced electricity, processing, real estate or hosting) less competitive. As a result of our efforts to optimize and improve the efficiency of our cryptocurrency mining operations, we may be exposed to the risk in the future of losing the benefit of our capital investments and the competitive advantage we hope to gain from this as a result, and may be negatively impacted if a switch to protocols other than PoW were to occur. If we cannot adapt to the new mining protocols quickly enough to keep pace with the market change, any such change to transaction validating protocols could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Growth in the popularity and use of other blockchain networks other than PoW cryptocurrency networks, may adversely affect our business.
 
A consensus algorithm is the mechanism through which a blockchain network reach consensus. There are several types of consensus algorithms, the most common among which are Proof-of-Work (“PoW”), Proof- of-Stake (“PoS”), Delegated-Proof-of-Stake (“DPoS”), Proof-of-Space-Time (“PoST”), and Proof-of- Capacity (“PoC”). PoW is employed by Bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies, according to which miners with higher computing power have better chances to find a valid solution for the next block. On the contrary, according to PoS, the creator of a new block is chosen in a deterministic way based on his or her stake, which is the number of coins he or she owns. As validation under PoS does not depend on computing power, PoS reduces the need for electricity and mining hardware. DPoS works similarly to PoS except it involves a voting and delegation mechanism to incentivize users to secure the network with their staked collateral. PoST and PoC are consensus mechanism algorithm used in blockchains that allows for mining devices in the network to use their available storage space and time to decide mining rights and validate transactions. PoST and PoC emerged as some of the many alternative solutions to the problem of high energy consumption in PoW systems and cryptocurrency hoarding in PoS systems.
 
Currently, the original PoW cryptocurrency network, Bitcoin, enjoys a first-to-market advantage over other networks such as PoS networks and dominates the cryptocurrency markets as it was introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto back in 2009, way earlier than other cryptocurrencies, and since then grew into the most populator cryptocurrency. Bitcoin’s market capitalization and its share of the market capitalization of all cryptocurrencies fluctuate as other cryptocurrencies were introduced to the digital assets industry at a later time and became more mainstream for various reasons, and there is no guarantee that Bitcoin or other PoW cryptocurrency networks, will continue to enjoy such market leading position and could be is overtaken by another virtual asset. For example, as the cryptocurrency community continues to develop and advance PoS technologies, PoS networks may offer actual or perceived advantages over PoW networks. While we intend to enrich our product and service portfolio by providing mining services covering new crypto protocols, including PoS, DPoS, PoST and PoC, and steadily increase the weight of new business to diversify revenue streams and attract new customers who are users of these new crypto protocols, our services primarily support PoW protocol currently. Specifically, prior to the second half of 2021, our business was limited to PoW protocol only; commencing from the second half of 2021, we started to mine Filecoin, which adopted PoST protocol, on a proprietary basis, and to offer computing power sharing solutions regarding Filecoin mining under our Cloud Hash Rate business. If preferences in the cryptocurrency markets shift away from PoW networks and PoS networks achieve widespread adoption, it could attract users away from Bitcoin and the other PoW cryptocurrencies we mine and the PoW related products mining services we offer, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and our prospects or operations as there is no guarantee that we will be able to adapt to new businesses swiftly enough, if at all.
 
The acceptance of Bitcoin network software patches or upgrades by a significant, but not overwhelming, percentage of the users and miners in the Bitcoin network could result in a “fork” in the blockchain, resulting in the operation of two separate networks that cannot be merged. The existence of forked blockchains could erode user confidence in Bitcoin and could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Bitcoin is based on open-source software and has no official developer or group of developers that formally controls the Bitcoin network. Any individual can download the Bitcoin network software and make any desired modifications, which are proposed to users and miners on the Bitcoin network through software downloads and upgrades. However, miners and users must consent to those software modifications by downloading the altered software or upgrading and implementing the changes; otherwise, the changes do not become part of the Bitcoin network. Since the Bitcoin network’s inception, changes to the Bitcoin network have been accepted by the vast majority of users and miners, ensuring that the Bitcoin network remains a coherent economic system. However, a developer or group of developers could potentially propose a modification to the Bitcoin network that is not accepted by a vast majority of miners and users, but that is nonetheless accepted by a substantial population of participants in the Bitcoin network. In such a case, a fork in the blockchain could develop and two separate Bitcoin networks could result, one running the pre-modification software program and the other running the modified version. An example is the introduction of a cryptocurrency known as “Bitcoin cash” in mid-2017. This kind of split in the Bitcoin network could erode user confidence in the stability of the Bitcoin network, which could negatively affect the demand for our services.
 
Cryptocurrency transactions are irrevocable and, if stolen or incorrectly transferred, cryptocurrencies may be irretrievable. As a result, any incorrectly executed cryptocurrency transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Typically, cryptocurrency transactions are not, from an administrative perspective, reversible without the consent and active participation of the recipient of the transaction or, in theory, control or consent of a majority of the processing power on the applicable network. Once a transaction has been confirmed and verified in a block that is added to the network blockchain, an incorrect transfer of a cryptocurrency or a theft of a cryptocurrency generally will not be reversible and we may not be capable of seeking compensation for any such transfer or theft. Although transfers of any cryptocurrencies we hold will regularly be made to or from vendors, consultants, services providers, etc., it is possible that, through computer or human error, or through theft or criminal action, our cryptocurrencies could be transferred from ourself in incorrect amounts or to unauthorized third parties. To the extent that we are unable to seek a corrective transaction with such third party or are incapable of identifying the third party that has received our cryptocurrencies through error or theft, we will be unable to revert or otherwise recover our incorrectly transferred cryptocurrencies. To the extent that we are unable to seek redress for such error or theft, such loss could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
The cryptocurrencies held by us may be subject to loss, damage, theft or restriction on access, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
 
There is a risk that some or all of the cryptocurrencies held or hosted by us could be lost, stolen or destroyed. We believe that the cryptocurrencies held or hosted by ourself and our mining operation will be an appealing target to hackers or malware distributors seeking to destroy, damage or steal our cryptocurrencies. Our security procedures and operational infrastructure may be breached due to the actions of outside parties, error or malfeasance of one of our employees, or otherwise, and, as a result, an unauthorized party may obtain access to our cryptocurrency accounts, private keys, data or cryptocurrencies. Although we implement a number of security procedures with various elements such as two-factor verification, segregated accounts and secured facilities and plan to implement the maintenance of data on computers and/or storage media that is not directly connected to, or accessible from, the internet and/or networked with other computers, or “cold storage,” to minimize the risk of loss, damage and theft, and we update such security procedures whenever reasonably practicable, there is no guarantee that the prevention of such loss, damage or theft, whether caused intentionally, accidentally or by an act of God.
 
Additionally, outside parties may attempt to fraudulently induce our employees to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our infrastructure. As the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently, or may be designed to remain dormant until a predetermined event, and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. As technological change occurs, the security threats to our Bitcoin will likely adapt and previously unknown threats may emerge. Our ability to adopt technology in response to changing security needs or trends may pose a challenge to the safekeeping of our cryptocurrencies. To the extent we are unable to identify and mitigate or stop new security threats, our cryptocurrencies may be subject to theft, loss, destruction or other attacks.
 
Any of these events could expose us to liability, damage our reputation, reduce customer confidence in our products and services and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, we believe that as our assets grow, we may become a more appealing target for security threats, such as hackers and malware. If an actual or perceived breach of our cryptocurrency accounts occurs, the market perception of our effectiveness could be harmed.
 
The impact of geopolitical, economic or other events on the supply of and demand for cryptocurrencies is uncertain, but could motivate large-scale sales of cryptocurrencies, which could result in a reduction in the price of such cryptocurrencies and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
As an alternative to fiat currencies that are backed by central governments, cryptocurrencies, which are relatively new, are subject to supply and demand forces based upon the desirability of an alternative, decentralized means of buying and selling goods and services. It is unclear how this supply and demand will be impacted by geopolitical events. Nevertheless, political or economic crises may motivate large-scale acquisitions or sales of cryptocurrencies either globally or locally. Large-scale sales of cryptocurrencies likely would result in a reduction in the price of the subject cryptocurrency and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
In addition, the price of cryptocurrencies may be affected by the buying and selling of a significant amount of cryptocurrencies by a holder, or a group of holders. Any unforeseen actions by holders of a significant amount of cryptocurrencies, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For instance, the recent introduction of a spot bitcoin exchange traded fund (“ETF”) and the pending approval of an ETH ETF may attract speculative traders who seek short-term gains based on price movements. This increased speculative activity could lead to short-term price volatility.
 
Cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, face significant scaling obstacles that can lead to high fees or slow transaction settlement times and any mechanisms of increasing the scale of cryptocurrency settlement may significantly alter the competitive dynamics in the market.
 
Many cryptocurrencies face significant scaling obstacles that can lead to high fees or slow transaction settlement times, and attempts to increase the volume of transactions may not be effective. Scaling cryptocurrencies, and particularly Bitcoin, is essential to the widespread acceptance of cryptocurrencies as a means of payment, which is necessary to the growth and development of our business.
 
Many cryptocurrency networks face significant scaling challenges. For example, cryptocurrencies are limited with respect to how many transactions can occur per second. In this respect, Bitcoin may be particularly affected as it relies on the PoW validation, which due to its inherent characteristics may be particularly hard to scale to allow simultaneous processing of multiple daily transactions by users. Participants in the cryptocurrency ecosystem debate potential approaches to increasing the average number of transactions per second that the network can handle and have implemented mechanisms or are researching ways to increase scale, such as “sharding,” which is a term for a horizontal partition of data in a database or search engine, which would not require every single transaction to be included in every single miner’s or validator’s block.
 
There is no guarantee that any of the mechanisms in place or being explored for increasing the scale of settlement of cryptocurrency transactions will be effective, how long they will take to become effective or whether such mechanisms will be effective for all cryptocurrencies. There is also a risk that any mechanisms of increasing the scale of cryptocurrency settlements may significantly alter the competitive dynamics in the cryptocurrency market, and may adversely affect the value of Bitcoin and the price of our Ordinary Shares, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results.
 
To the extent that any miners cease to record transactions in solved blocks, transactions that do not include the payment of a transaction fee will not be recorded on the blockchain until a block is solved by a miner who does not require the payment of transaction fees. Any widespread delays in the recording of transactions could result in a loss of confidence in that cryptocurrency network, which could adversely impact an investment in us.
 
To the extent that any miners cease to record transactions in solved blocks, such transactions will not be recorded on the blockchain. Currently, there are no known incentives for miners to elect to exclude the recording of transactions in solved blocks; however, to the extent that any such incentives arise (e.g., a collective movement among miners or one or more mining pools forcing Bitcoin users to pay transaction fees as a substitute for or in addition to the award of new Bitcoins upon the solving of a block), actions of miners solving a significant number of blocks could delay the recording and confirmation of transactions on the blockchain.
 
Any systemic delays in the recording and confirmation of transactions on the blockchain could result in greater exposure to double-spending transactions and a loss of confidence in certain or all cryptocurrency networks, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results.
 
Network congestion could result in high fees, delayed transactions, and a loss of confidence in that cryptocurrency network, which could adversely impact an investment in us.
 
Rising adoption of blockchain networks leads to network congestion, as space on decentralized ledgers is inherently scarce. From a design standpoint, striking a balance between security, decentralization, and scalability (or transactional throughput) is the subject of great debate among innovators and has led to the creation of a variety of networks that make different trade-offs to achieve different outcomes. If network congestion rises to the point where transaction fees make it prohibitively expensive for average users to operate on the network, those users may stop using the network, and application developers may seek to build on other networks where users can afford to transact.
 
Increasing growth and popularity of cryptocurrencies, initial coin offerings (“ICOs”) and security token offerings, as well as non-digital asset-related applications that utilize blockchain technology on certain networks, can cause congestion and backlog, and as result, increase latency on such networks. An increase in congestion and backlogs could result in longer transaction confirmation times, an increase in unconfirmed transactions (that is, transactions that have yet to be included in a block on a network and therefore are not yet completed transactions), higher transaction fees and an overall decrease in confidence in a particular network, which could ultimately affect our ability to transact on that particular network and, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We may diversify our business by mining or investing in additional cryptocurrencies which could require significant investment or expose us to trading risks.
 
The field of cryptocurrencies is constantly expanding with around 10,000 types of cryptocurrencies in existence as of December 2023. We intend to evaluate the potential for mining or investing in existing, new and alternative cryptocurrencies. To the extent we elect to commence activities to generate cryptocurrencies, we would be required to invest our assets either to obtain mining equipment configured to generate cryptocurrencies based on a PoW protocol or to post “stakes” to generate cryptocurrencies based on a PoS protocol. In addition, or in the alternative, we may trade our cryptocurrencies for other cryptocurrencies on centralized or decentralized exchanges. Optimization of such trades may vary depending on the exchange on which the trade is conducted because we may not have access to all exchanges on which such trades are available. Further, trading on centralized and decentralized exchanges may expose us to additional risks if such exchanges experience breaches of security measures, system errors or vulnerabilities, software corruption, hacking or other irregularities. Any new cryptocurrency obtained through generation or trading may be more volatile or fail to increase in value compared to cryptocurrencies we currently hold. As a result, any investment in different cryptocurrencies may not achieve our goals, may be viewed negatively by analysts or investors and may negatively affect our revenue and results of operations.
 
If the transaction fees for recording cryptocurrencies in a blockchain increase, demand for cryptocurrencies may be reduced and prevent the expansion of the networks to retail merchants and commercial businesses, resulting in a reduction in the acceptance or price of cryptocurrencies.
 
As the number of cryptocurrencies awarded for solving a block in a blockchain decreases, the incentive for mining participants to contribute processing power to networks will transition from a set reward to transaction fees. In order to incentivize mining participants to continue to contribute processing power to the networks, the network may transition from a set reward to transaction fees earned upon solving for a block.
 
If mining participants demand higher transaction fees to record transactions in a blockchain or a software upgrade automatically charges fees for all transactions, the cost of using cryptocurrencies may increase and the marketplace may be reluctant to accept cryptocurrencies as a means of payment. Existing users may be motivated to switch from one cryptocurrency to another or back to fiat currency. Decreased use and demand for cryptocurrencies may adversely affect their value and result in a reduction in the value of our common stock.
 
If the award of new cryptocurrencies and/or transaction fees for solving blocks is not sufficiently high to incentivize miners, such processors may reduce or cease expending processing power on a particular network, which could negatively impact the utility of the network, reduce the value of our cryptocurrencies and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
As the number of cryptocurrencies rewarded to miners for validating blocks in a network decreases, the incentive for miners to continue contributing processing power to the network may shift toward transaction fees. Such a shift may increase the transaction fees on a network. Higher transaction fees may reduce the utility of a network for an end user, which may cause end users to reduce or stop their use of that network. In such case, the price of the relevant cryptocurrency may decline substantially and could go to zero. Such reduced price and demand for, and use of, the relevant cryptocurrency and network, either as it applies to our transaction processing services or to those of our potential hosting customers, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Miners may sell a substantial number of cryptocurrencies into the market, which may exert downward pressure on the price of the applicable cryptocurrency and, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Transaction processing requires the investment of significant capital for the acquisition of hardware, leasing or purchasing space, involves substantial electricity costs and requires the employment of personnel to operate the data facilities, which may lead transaction processing operators to liquidate their positions in cryptocurrencies to fund these capital requirements. In addition, if the reward of new cryptocurrencies for transaction processing declines, and/or if transaction fees are not sufficiently high, profit margins for transaction processing operators may be reduced, and such operators may be more likely to sell a higher percentage of their cryptocurrencies. Whereas it is believed that individual operators in past years were more likely to hold cryptocurrencies for more extended periods, the immediate selling of newly transacted cryptocurrencies by operators may increase the supply of such cryptocurrencies on the applicable exchange market, which could create downward pressure on the price of the cryptocurrencies and, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
To the extent that the profit margins of cryptocurrency mining operations are not high, mining participants are more likely to sell their earned Bitcoin, which could constrain Bitcoin prices.
 
Over the past few years, cryptocurrency mining operations have evolved from individual users mining with computer processors, graphics processing units and first-generation application-specific integrated circuit (“ASIC”) servers. Currently, new processing power is predominantly added by incorporated and unincorporated “professionalized” mining operations. Professionalized mining operations may use proprietary hardware or sophisticated ASIC machines acquired from ASIC manufacturers. They require the investment of significant capital to acquire this hardware, to lease operating space (often in datacenters or warehousing facilities), and to pay the costs of electricity and labor to operate the mining datacenters. As a result, professionalized mining operations are of a greater scale than prior mining operations and have more defined and regular expenses and liabilities. These regular expenses and liabilities require professionalized mining operations to maintain profit margins on the sale of cryptocurrencies. To the extent the price of cryptocurrencies declines and such profit margin is constrained, professionalized mining participants are incentivized to more immediately sell cryptocurrencies earned from mining operations, whereas it is believed that individual mining participants in past years were more likely to hold newly mined cryptocurrencies for more extended periods. The immediate selling of newly mined cryptocurrencies greatly increases the trading volume of the cryptocurrencies, creating downward pressure on the market price of cryptocurrency rewards. The extent to which the value of cryptocurrencies mined by a professionalized mining operation exceeds the allocable capital and operating costs determines the profit margin of such operation. A professionalized mining operation may be more likely to sell a higher percentage of its newly mined cryptocurrencies rapidly if it is operating at a low profit margin and it may partially or completely cease operations if its profit margin is negative. In a low profit margin environment, a higher percentage could be sold more rapidly, thereby potentially depressing cryptocurrency prices. Lower cryptocurrency prices could result in further tightening of profit margins for professionalized mining operations creating a network effect that may further reduce the price of cryptocurrencies until mining operations with higher operating costs become unprofitable forcing them to reduce mining power or cease mining operations temporarily. Such circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects or operations and potentially the value of Bitcoin and any other cryptocurrencies we mine or otherwise acquire or hold for our own account.
 
Risks Related to Regulatory Compliance and Other Legal Matters
 
We are subject to a highly-evolving regulatory landscape and any adverse changes to, or our failure to comply with, any laws and regulations could adversely affect our business, reputation, prospects or operations.
 
As crypto assets have grown in popularity and in market size, the U.S. regulatory regime - namely the Federal Reserve Board, U.S. Congress and certain U.S. agencies (e.g., the SEC, the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”), the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (the “FinCEN”) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation), and local and foreign governmental organizations, consumer agencies and public advocacy groups have been examining the operations of crypto networks, users and platforms, with a focus on how crypto assets can be used to launder the proceeds of illegal activities, fund criminal or terrorist enterprises, and the safety and soundness of platforms and other service providers that hold crypto assets for users. Many of these entities have called for heightened regulatory oversight, and have issued consumer advisories describing the risks posed by crypto assets to users and investors. For instance, in March 2022, Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell expressed the need for regulation to prevent “cryptocurrencies from serving as a vehicle for terrorist finance and just general criminal behavior”. On March 8, 2022, President Biden announced an executive order on cryptocurrencies which seeks to establish a unified federal regulatory regime for cryptocurrencies. The complexity and evolving nature of our business and the significant uncertainty surrounding the regulation of the crypto assets industry requires us to exercise our judgment as to whether certain laws, rules, and regulations apply to us, and it is possible that governmental bodies and regulators may disagree with our conclusions. To the extent we have not complied with such laws, rules and regulations, we could be subject to significant fines, revocation of licenses, limitations on our products and services, reputational harm, and other regulatory consequences, each of which may be significant and could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
 
Additionally, the bankruptcy filings of FTX, the third largest digital asset exchange by volume at the time of its filing, and its affiliated hedge fund Alameda Research LLC, in addition to other bankruptcy filings of crypto companies throughout calendar year 2022, contributed, at least in part, to heightened regulatory scrutiny from U.S. regulatory agencies such as the SEC and CFTC. Increasing regulation and regulatory scrutiny may result in additional costs for us and our management having to devote increased time and attention to regulatory matters, change aspects of our business or result in limits on the utility of Bitcoin. In addition, regulatory developments and/or our business activities may require us to comply with certain regulatory regimes. Increasingly strict legal and regulatory requirements and any regulatory investigations and enforcement may result in changes to our business, as well as increased costs, supervision and examination. Moreover, new laws, regulations, or interpretations may result in additional litigation, regulatory investigations, and enforcement or other actions. Adverse changes to, or our failure to comply with, any laws and regulations may have, an adverse effect on our reputation and brand and our business, operating results, and financial condition.
 
Although we are not directly connected to the cryptocurrency market events in 2022, we may still suffer reputational harm due to our association with the cryptocurrency industry in light of the disruption in the crypto asset markets. Ongoing and future regulation and regulatory actions could significantly restrict or eliminate the market for or uses of Bitcoin and/or may adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
 
The nature of our business requires the application of complex financial accounting rules, and there is limited guidance from accounting standard setting bodies. If financial accounting standards undergo significant changes, our operating results could be adversely affected.
 
The accounting rules and regulations that we must comply with are complex and subject to interpretation by the IASB, the SEC, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and may even affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement or effectiveness of a change. Recent actions and public comments from the SEC have focused on the integrity of financial reporting and internal controls. In addition, many companies’ accounting policies are being subject to heightened scrutiny by regulators and the public. Further, there has been limited precedents for the financial accounting of cryptocurrency-related transactions. As such, there remains significant uncertainty on how companies can account for crypto assets transactions, crypto assets, and related revenue. Uncertainties in or changes to regulatory or financial accounting standards could result in the need to change our accounting methods and restate our financial statements and impair our ability to provide timely and accurate financial information, which could adversely affect the accuracy of our financial statements, result in a loss of investor confidence, and more generally impact our business, operating result, and financial condition.
 
Our interactions with a blockchain may expose us to specially designated nationals (“SDN”) or blocked persons or cause us to violate provisions of law that did not contemplate distribute ledger technology.
 
The OFAC requires us to comply with its sanction program and not conduct business with persons named on its SDN list. However, because of the pseudonymous nature of blockchain transactions, we may, inadvertently and without our knowledge, engage in transactions with persons named on OFAC’s SDN list. Our internal policies prohibit any transactions with such SDN individuals, but we may not be adequately capable of determining the ultimate identity of the individual with whom we transact with respect to our cryptocurrency mining-related products and services. In addition, in the future, OFAC or another regulator, may require us to screen transactions for OFAC addresses or other bad actors before including such transactions in a block, which may increase our compliance costs, decrease our anticipated transaction fees and lead to decreased traffic on our network. Any of these factors, consequently, could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results.
 
Moreover, federal law prohibits any U.S. person from knowingly or unknowingly possessing any visual depiction commonly known as child pornography. Media reports have suggested that persons have embedded such depictions on one or more blockchains. Because our business requires us to download and retain one or more blockchains to effectuate our ongoing business, it is possible that such digital ledgers contain prohibited depictions without our knowledge or consent. To the extent government enforcement authorities literally enforce these and other laws and regulations that are impacted by decentralized distributed ledger technology, we may be subject to investigation, administrative or court proceedings, and civil or criminal monetary fines and penalties, all of which could harm our reputation and could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results.
 
Our mining datacenters may be located on property whose owner has not obtained the approval of relevant authorities, and we may be ordered to relocate from that property.
 
Our mining datacenters where mining machines operate are located in different places around the world. Due to the unexpectable regulations that the governments may impose on the development of cryptocurrencies or cryptocurrency mining, the properties we are renting currently may not be in accordance with local zoning ordinance. Such mining datacenters may be considered to be in violation of relevant zoning laws and the government may order the demolition or relocation of such datacenters. If we are evicted from such property, we may need to find alternative properties and relocate our mining datacenters. Unless we are able to make timely alternative arrangements for relocating, we may not be able to fulfill purchase orders received, which may have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Issues in the development and use of AI may result in reputational or competitive harm or liability.
 
With the completion of the deployment and successful testing of our NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD H100 system, we are beginning to build AI into our infrastructure services. We expect this integration of AI into our offerings and our business in general to grow. AI presents risks and challenges that could affect its adoption, and therefore our business. AI algorithms or training methodologies may be flawed. Datasets may be overbroad, insufficient, or contain biased information. Content generated by AI systems may be offensive, illegal, or otherwise harmful. Ineffective or inadequate AI development or deployment practices by our Company or others could result in incidents that impair the acceptance of AI solutions or cause harm to individuals, customers, or society, or result in our products and services not working as intended. Human review of certain outputs may be required. As a result of these and other challenges associated with innovative technologies, our implementation of AI systems could subject us to competitive harm, regulatory action, legal liability, including under new proposed legislation regulating AI in jurisdictions, new applications of existing data protection, privacy, intellectual property, and other laws, and brand or reputational harm. Some AI scenarios present ethical issues or may have broad impacts on society. If we provide supporting/computing AI services that have unintended consequences, unintended usage or customization by our customers and partners, or are controversial because of their impact on human rights, privacy, employment, or other social, economic, or political issues, we may experience brand or reputational harm, adversely affecting our business and consolidated financial statements.
 
We may be involved in legal and other disputes from time to time arising out of our operations, including disputes with our suppliers, business partners, customers or employees.
 
We may from time to time be involved in disputes with various parties arising out of our operations, including mining machines or electricity suppliers, business partners, customers or employees. These disputes may lead to protests or legal or other proceedings and may result in damage to our reputation, substantial costs and diversion of resources and management’s attention from our core business activities. In addition, we may encounter compliance issues with regulatory bodies in the course of our operations, in respect of which we may face administrative proceedings or unfavorable rulings that may result in liabilities and cause delays or disruptions to our services. We may be involved in other proceedings or disputes in the future that may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
 
We may increasingly become a target for public scrutiny, including complaints to regulatory agencies, negative media coverage, and malicious allegations, all of which could severely damage our reputation and materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.
 
Certain features of cryptocurrency networks, such as decentralization, independence from sovereignty and anonymity of transactions, create the possibility of heightened attention from the public, regulators and the media. Heightened regulatory and public concerns over cryptocurrency-related issues may subject us to additional legal and social responsibilities and increased scrutiny and negative publicity over these issues and even boycott by the rest of the mining community, due to our leading position in the cryptocurrency mining industry. From time to time, these allegations, regardless of their veracity, may result in consumer dissatisfaction, public protests or negative publicity, which could result in government inquiry or substantial harm to our brand, reputation and operations. Moreover, as our business expands and grows, we may be exposed to heightened public scrutiny in jurisdictions where we already operate as well as in new jurisdictions where we may operate. There is no assurance that we would not become a target for regulatory or public scrutiny in the future or that scrutiny and public exposure would not severely damage our reputation as well as our business and prospects.
 
Our insurance coverage is limited and may not be adequate to cover potential losses and liabilities. A significant uninsured loss or a loss in excess of our insurance coverage could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
 
Risks associated with our business and operations include, but are not limited to, business interruption due to regulatory changes, power shortages or network failure, product liability claims and losses of key personnel, any of which may result in significant costs or business disruption. In line with general market practice, we do not have any business liability or disruption insurance to cover our operations. However, our current insurance policies may be insufficient in the event of a prolonged or catastrophic event. The occurrence of any such event that is not entirely covered by our insurance policies may result in interruption of our operations, subject us to significant losses or liabilities and damage our reputation as a provider of business continuity services. In addition, the property, transit and director and officer insurance policies we have obtained may not cover all risks associated with our business. It may not be possible, either because of a lack of available policies, limits on coverage or prohibitive cost, for us to obtain insurance of any type that would cover losses associated with our cryptocurrency portfolio. The occurrence of certain incidents including severe weather, earthquake, fire, war, power outages, flooding and the consequences resulting from them may not be covered by our insurance policies adequately, or at all. If we were subject to substantial liabilities that were not covered by our insurance, we could incur costs and losses that could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
 
The cryptocurrencies held by us are not insured. Therefore, a loss may be suffered with respect to our cryptocurrencies which is not covered by insurance and for which no person is liable in damages which could adversely affect our operations and, consequently, an investment in us.
 
Bitcoin mining activities are energy-intensive, which may restrict the geographic locations of mining machines and have a negative environmental impact.
 
Bitcoin mining activities are inherently energy-intensive and electricity costs account for a significant portion of the overall mining costs. The availability and cost of electricity will restrict the geographic locations of mining activities. Any shortage of electricity supply or increase in electricity cost in a jurisdiction may negatively impact the viability and the expected economic return for Bitcoin mining activities in that jurisdiction, which may in turn decrease the sales of our Bitcoin mining machines in that jurisdiction.
 
In addition, the significant consumption of electricity may have a negative environmental impact, including contribution to climate change, which may give rise to public opinion against allowing the use of electricity for Bitcoin mining activities or government measures restricting or prohibiting the use of electricity for Bitcoin mining activities. Any such development in the jurisdictions where we sell our cryptocurrency mining-related products and services could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our business operation and international expansion are subject to geopolitical risks.
 
Our business operation and international expansion are subject to geopolitical risks. Any significant deterioration in our business collaboration with our partners may have a negative impact on the ability of our business partners to produce or deliver the equipment or components we need, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
In addition, there might be significant changes to United States trade policies, treaties and tariffs, including trade policies and tariffs regarding the Europe Union or other major economy entities. Countries may respond by imposing retaliatory trade measures against the United States. For details about international trade relations, see the section entitled “ - Changes in international trade policies and international barriers to trade may have an adverse effect on our business and expansion plans.” Variations in the trade policies among different countries will significantly influence our worldwide business and regional business relationship, which will materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our business operation and international expansion may have an intrinsic need for governmental interactions, and are therefore subject to higher corruption risks.
 
We require significant power resources and related infrastructures to support cryptocurrency mining, and that our business operates under a fast-changing regulatory landscape, both in terms of cryptocurrency and environmental regulations. Such business nature may pose an intrinsic need for us to frequently interact with government authorities by, for example, accessing natural resources and engaging in lobbying activities with respect to any relevant regulatory changes. Frequent governmental interactions may pose higher corruption and bribery risks to us. In addition, our plan to expand internationally, including into jurisdictions which are considered high-risk from an anti-bribery and anti-corruption perspective, also heightens the corruption risks for us.
 
We require certain approvals, licenses, permits and certifications to operate. Any failure to obtain or renew any of these approvals, licenses, permits or certifications could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
In accordance with the laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate, we are required to maintain certain approvals, licenses, permits and certifications, such as obtaining certificates of occupancy and passing electrical inspection for our mining datacenters. Complying with such laws and regulations may require substantial expense, and any non-compliance may expose us to liability. In the event of non-compliance, we may have to incur significant expenses and divert substantial management time to rectify the incidents. In the future, if we fail to obtain all the necessary approvals, licenses, permits and certifications, we may be subject to fines or the suspension of operations of the production facilities and research and development facilities that do not have all the requisite approvals, licenses, permits and certifications, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. We may also experience adverse publicity arising from non-compliance with government regulations, which would negatively impact our reputation.
 
There is no assurance that we will be able to fulfill all the conditions necessary to obtain the required government approvals, or that relevant government officials will always, if ever, exercise their discretion in our favor, or that we will be able to adapt to any new laws, regulations and policies. There may also be delays on the part of government authorities in reviewing our applications and granting approvals, whether due to the lack of human resources or the imposition of new rules, regulations, government policies or their implementation, interpretation and enforcement. If we are unable to obtain, or experiences material delays in obtaining, necessary government approvals, our operations may be substantially disrupted, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We are not aware of any governmental licenses or authorizations required to offer our products and services to customers in the jurisdictions we offer such products and services. However, our hash rate sharing business may be subject to U.S. jurisdictions under certain circumstances. See the section entitled “- Our hash rate sharing business may be subject to U.S. jurisdiction if we are not able to avoid offering or selling our hash rate products to U.S. customers. Additionally, our hash rate sharing business may be deemed as securities offerings in other jurisdictions where it is offered.”
 
We may be subject to fines and other administrative penalties resulting from the operation of our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.
 
We are a leading cryptocurrency mining service provider with a strong global presence. As of February 29, 2024, we operate six prime mining datacenters in the United States, Norway and Bhutan and served users across around 100 countries and regions around the globe, and may continue to expand our operations to more countries and regions. We are subject to regulation by the multiple government authorities in countries or regions where we have presence, and various jurisdictions may from time to time adopt laws, regulations or directives that affect our businesses. Moreover, the relevant regulatory authorities possess significant powers to enforce applicable regulatory requirements in the event of our non-compliance, including the imposition of fines, sanctions or the revocation of licenses or permits to operate our business. We are subject to regulatory risks with regards to mining, holding, using, or transferring cryptocurrencies, etc., and the uncertainty of the regulatory environment and our ability to anticipate and respond to potential changes in government policies and regulations will have a significant impact on our business operations in countries we operate in and our overall results of operations. Regulations have impacted or could impact, among others, the nature of and scope of offerings we are able to make available, the pricing of offerings on our platform, our relationship with, and incentives, fees and commissions provided to or charged from our business partners, our ability to operate in certain segments of our business. We expect that our ability to manage our relationships with regulators in each of our markets, as well as existing and evolving regulations will continue to impact our results in the future. Any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the law and regulation could subject us to, among others, the non-compliance investigation by the government authorities. There is no guarantee that we will not face administrative fines or penalties concerning our operations or our subsidiaries, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operation.
 
If counterfeit products and services are provided under our brand names and trademarks, our reputation and financial results could be materially and adversely affected.
 
Third-party service providers and dealers are separately responsible for sourcing counterfeit services that are performed under our brand names and trademarks. Counterfeit services may be dissatisfying or inferior in quality as compared to authentic services. If our customers are not satisfied by counterfeit services provided under our brand names and trademarks, we may be subject to reputational damage. We believe our brand and reputation are important to our success and competitive position. The discovery of counterfeit services provided under our brand names and trademarks may severally damage our reputation and cause customers to refrain from making future purchases from us, which would materially and adversely affect our business operations and financial results.
 
Our hash rate sharing business may be subject to U.S. jurisdiction if we are not able to avoid offering or selling our hash rate products to U.S. customers. Additionally, our hash rate sharing business may be deemed as securities offerings in other jurisdictions where it is offered.
 
To the extent that we are appropriately restricting U.S. persons from obtaining our hash rate products, such business should not be subject to U.S. securities laws. However, whether we are effective in avoiding U.S. jurisdiction by actually not offering or selling our hash rate products to U.S. customers would depend on, among others, the existence and effectiveness of measures adopted in practice against U.S. persons obtaining our services, such as screening mechanisms and/or contractual restrictions over transfers of the contracts to
 
U.S. persons in the secondary market. If certain U.S. customers, or customers from other jurisdictions where our hash rate sharing may be deemed as securities offerings, end up obtaining access to our hash rate products, and we have not registered the offering of such products, we may be deemed in breach of applicable securities laws. Such breach may result in sizable fines, reputational harms, restrictions of certain businesses, and materially adversely affect our business operation and financial conditions.
 
If we were deemed an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, applicable restrictions could make it impractical for us to continue our business as contemplated and could have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
An issuer will generally be deemed to be an “investment company” for purposes of the 1940 Act if:
 

it is an “orthodox” investment company because it is or holds itself out as being engaged primarily, or proposes to engage primarily, in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities; or
 

it is an inadvertent investment company because, absent an applicable exemption, it owns or proposes to acquire “investment securities” having a value exceeding 40% of the value of its total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis.
 
We believe we are not and will not be primarily engaged in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities, and we do not hold ourself out as being engaged in those activities. We intend to hold ourself out as a cryptocurrency mining business. Accordingly, we do not believe that we are an “orthodox” investment company as described in the first bullet point above.
 
While certain cryptocurrencies may be deemed to be securities, we do not believe that certain other cryptocurrencies, in particular Bitcoin, are securities; therefore, we believe that less than 40% of our total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis will comprise cryptocurrencies that could be considered investment securities. Accordingly, we do not believe that we are an inadvertent investment company by virtue of the 40% inadvertent investment company test as described in the second bullet point above. Although we do not believe any of the cryptocurrencies we may own, acquire or mine are securities, there is still some regulatory uncertainty on the subject, see the section entitled “- There is no one unifying principle governing the regulatory status of cryptocurrencies nor whether cryptocurrencies are securities in any particular context. Regulatory changes or actions in one or more countries may alter the nature of an investment in us or restrict the use of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoins, in a manner that adversely affects our business, prospects or operations.” If certain cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, were to be deemed securities, and consequently, investment securities by the SEC, we could be deemed an inadvertent investment company. Investment company registration is time consuming and would require a restructuring of our business. Moreover, the operation of an investment company is very costly and restrictive, as investment companies are subject to substantial regulation concerning management, operations, transactions with affiliated persons and portfolio composition, and the Investment Company Act filing requirements. The cost of such compliance would result in us incurring substantial additional expenses, and the failure to register if required would have a materially adverse impact on our operations.
 
We intend to conduct our operations so that we are not required to register as an investment company under the 1940 Act. Specifically, we do not believe that cryptocurrencies, in particular Bitcoin, are securities. The SEC Staff has not provided guidance with respect to the treatment of these assets under the 1940 Act. To the extent the SEC Staff publishes new guidance with respect to these matters, we may be required to adjust our strategy or assets accordingly. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our exclusion from registration as an investment company under the 1940 Act. In addition, as a consequence of our seeking to avoid the need to register under the 1940 Act on an ongoing basis, we may be limited in our ability to engage in cryptocurrency mining operations or otherwise make certain investments, and these limitations could result in us holding assets we may wish to sell or selling assets we may wish to hold, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
If we were to be deemed an inadvertent investment company, we may seek to rely on Rule 3a-2 under the 1940 Act, which allows an inadvertent investment company a grace period of one year from the earlier of (a) the date on which the issuer owns securities and/or cash having a value exceeding 50% of the issuer’s total assets on either a consolidated or unconsolidated basis or (b) the date on which the issuer owns or proposes to acquire investment securities having a value exceeding 40% of the value of such issuer’s total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis. We are putting in place policies that we expect will work to keep the investment securities held by us at less than 40% of our total assets, which may include acquiring assets with our cash, liquidating our investment securities or seeking no-action relief or exemptive relief from the SEC if we are unable to acquire sufficient assets or liquidate sufficient investment securities in a timely manner. As Rule 3a-2 is available to an issuer no more than once every three years, and assuming no other exclusion were available to us, we would have to keep within the 40% limit for at least three years after we cease being an inadvertent investment company. This may limit our ability to make certain investments or enter into joint ventures that could otherwise have a positive impact on our earnings. If we failed to take adequate steps within the one-year grace period for inadvertent investment companies, we would need to register with the SEC as an investment company under the Investment Company Act or cease almost all business, and our contracts would become voidable. In any event, we do not intend to become an investment company engaged in the business of investing and trading securities.
 
Finally, we believe we are not an investment company under Section 3(b)(1) of the 1940 Act because we are primarily engaged in a non-investment company business.
 
The 1940 Act and the rules thereunder contain detailed parameters for the organization and operations of investment companies. Among other things, the 1940 Act and the rules thereunder limit or prohibit transactions with affiliates, impose limitations on the issuance of debt and equity securities, prohibit the issuance of stock options, and impose certain governance requirements. We intend to continue to conduct our operations so that we will not be deemed to be an investment company under the 1940 Act. However, if anything were to happen that would cause us to be deemed to be an investment company under the 1940 Act, requirements imposed by the 1940 Act, including limitations on our capital structure, ability to transact business with affiliates and ability to compensate key employees, could make it impractical for us to continue our business as currently conducted, impair the agreements and arrangements between and among us and our senior management team and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
There is no one unifying principle governing the regulatory status of cryptocurrencies nor whether cryptocurrencies are securities in any particular context. Regulatory changes or actions in one or more countries may alter the nature of an investment in us or restrict the use of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoins, in a manner that adversely affects our business, prospects or operations.
 
As cryptocurrencies have grown in both popularity and market size, governments around the world have reacted differently, with certain governments deeming cryptocurrencies illegal, and others allowing their use and trade without restriction. In some jurisdictions, such as in the U.S., cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoins, are subject to extensive, and in some cases overlapping, unclear and evolving regulatory requirements.
 
Bitcoin is the oldest and most well-known form of cryptocurrency. Bitcoin and other forms of cryptocurrencies have been the source of much regulatory consternation, resulting in differing definitional outcomes without a single unifying statement. Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are viewed differently by different regulatory and standards setting organizations globally as well as in the United States on the federal and state levels. For example, the Financial Action Task Force considers a cryptocurrency as currency or an asset, and the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) considers a cryptocurrency as property and not currency. Further, the IRS applies general tax principles that apply to property transactions to transactions involving virtual currency.
 
Furthermore, while the SEC approved 11 spot Bitcoin ETF applications in January 2024, no clear principles have emerged from the regulators as to how they view these issues and how to regulate cryptocurrency under the applicable securities acts. On April 20, 2021, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a bipartisan bill titled “Eliminate Barriers to Innovation Act of 2021” (H.R. 1602). If passed by the Senate and enacted into law, the bipartisan bill would create a cryptocurrency working group to evaluate the current legal and regulatory framework around cryptocurrencies in the United States and define when the SEC may have jurisdiction over a particular token or cryptocurrency (i.e., when it is a security) and when the CFTC may have jurisdiction (i.e., on derivatives of a cryptocurrency when it is a commodity).
 
If regulatory changes or interpretations require the regulation of Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies under the securities laws of the United States or elsewhere, including the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, the 1940 Act, and the Bank Secrecy Act or similar laws of other jurisdictions and interpretations by the SEC, the CFTC, the IRS, Department of Treasury or other agencies or authorities, we may be required to register and comply with such regulations, including at a state or local level. To the extent that we decide to continue operations, the required registrations and regulatory compliance steps may result in extraordinary expense or burdens to us. We may also decide to cease certain operations and change our business model. Any disruption of our operations in response to the changed regulatory circumstances may be at a time that is disadvantageous to us.
 
A determination that any cryptocurrency is a “security” may adversely affect the value of such cryptocurrency and could therefore adversely affect our business, prospects or operations.
 
Depending on its characteristics, a cryptocurrency may be considered a “security” under the federal securities laws. The test for determining whether a particular cryptocurrency is a “security” is complex and difficult to apply, and the outcome is difficult to predict. Whether a cryptocurrency is a security under the federal securities laws depends on whether it is included in the lists of instruments making up the definition of “security” in the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and the Investment Company Act. Cryptocurrencies as such do not appear in any of these lists, although each list includes the terms “investment contract” and “note,” and the SEC has typically analyzed whether a particular cryptocurrency is a security by reference to whether it meets the tests developed by the federal courts interpreting these terms, known as the “Howey” and “Reves” tests, respectively. For many cryptocurrencies, whether or not the “Howey” or “Reves” tests are met is difficult to resolve definitively, and substantial legal arguments can often be made both in favor of and against a particular digital asset qualifying as a security under one or both of the “Howey” and “Reves” tests. Adding to the complexity, the SEC staff has indicated that the security status of a particular digital asset can change over time as the relevant facts evolve.
 
Current and future legislation and SEC-rulemaking and other regulatory developments, including interpretations released by a regulatory authority, may impact the manner in which Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies are viewed or treated for classification and clearing purposes. In particular, Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies may not be excluded from the definition of “security” by SEC rulemaking or interpretation requiring registration of all transactions unless another exemption is available, including transacting in Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies among owners and requiring registration of trading platforms as “exchanges.” Accordingly, cryptocurrencies such as Zcash may currently be a security, based on the facts as they exist today, or may in the future be found by the SEC or a federal court to be a security under the federal securities laws. Historically, we have generated minimum amount of mining yields from Zcash and held minimum amount of Zcash. We do not intend to hold or generate mining yield from cryptocurrencies in violation of the federal securities laws. Accordingly, if Zcash or other cryptocurrencies involved in our business is determined by us, the SEC or other regulatory authorities to be a security under the federal securities laws, it could result in interruption of our business operations.
 
Furthermore, the SEC may determine that certain cryptocurrencies or interests, for example tokens offered and sold in ICOs, may constitute securities under the Howey test as stated by the United States Supreme Court. As such, ICO offerings would require registration under the Securities Act or an available exemption therefrom for offers or sales in the United States to be lawful. Section 5(a) of the Securities Act provides that, unless a registration statement is in effect as to a security, it is unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, to engage in the offer or sale of securities in interstate commerce. Section 5(c) of the Securities Act provides a similar prohibition against offers to sell, or offers to buy, unless a registration statement has been filed.
 
Although we do not intend to be engaged in the offer or sale of securities in the form of ICO offerings, and we do not believe our planned mining activities would require registration for us to conduct such activities and accumulate cryptocurrencies, the SEC, CFTC, Nasdaq, IRS or other governmental or quasi-governmental agency or organization may conclude that our activities involve the offer or sale of “securities,” or ownership of “investment securities,” and we may be subject to regulation or registration requirements under various federal laws and related rules. Such regulation or the inability to meet the requirements to continue operations, would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations. We may also face similar issues with various state securities regulators who may interpret our actions as subjecting us to regulation, or requiring registration, under state securities laws, banking laws, or money transmitter and similar laws, which are also an unsettled area or regulation that exposes us to risks.
 
Regulatory changes or actions may restrict the use of cryptocurrencies or the operation of cryptocurrency networks in a manner that may require us to cease certain or all operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
 There has been a significant amount of regulatory attention directed toward cryptocurrencies, cryptocurrency networks and other industry participants by United States federal and state governments, foreign governments and self-regulatory agencies. For example, as cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin have grown in popularity and in market size, the Federal Reserve Board, U.S. Congress and certain U.S. agencies (e.g., FinCEN, the SEC, the CFTC and the Federal Bureau of Investigation) have begun to examine the operations of the Bitcoin network, Bitcoin users and Bitcoin exchange markets.
 
In addition, local state regulators such as the Texas State Securities Board, the Massachusetts Securities Division of the Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, the New Jersey Bureau of Securities, the North Carolina Secretary of State’s Securities Division and the Vermont Department of Financial Regulation have initiated actions against, and investigations of, individuals and companies involved in cryptocurrencies.
 
Also, in March 2018, the South Carolina Attorney General Office’s Security Division issued a cease-and- desist order against Genesis Mining and Swiss Gold Global, Inc., stating that both companies were to stop doing business in South Carolina and are permanently barred from offering securities in the state in the future since they offered unregistered securities via cloud mining contracts under the South Carolina Uniformed Securities Act of 2005, S.C. Code Ann. § 35-1-101, et seq. (the order against Genesis Mining was subsequently withdrawn). Neither the Company nor, to our knowledge, Matrixport Group, has any direct or indirect relationship with these two companies.
 
Further, the North Carolina Secretary of State’s Securities Division issued in March 2018 a Temporary Cease and Desist Order against Power Mining Pool (made permanent pursuant to a Final Order on April 19, 2018), ordering it to cease and desist, among other things, offering “mining pool shares,” which were deemed “securities” under N.C. Gen. Stat. 78A-2(11), in North Carolina until they are registered with the North Carolina Secretary of State or are offered for sale pursuant to an exemption from registration under the North Carolina Securities Act, N.C. Gen. Stat. Chapter 78A.
 
Additionally, we rely on third-party mining pool service providers for mining revenue payouts from our mining operation, and certain of our potential hosting customers could be involved in, or could issue, cloud mining contracts or mining pool shares, and any regulatory restrictions on their practices could significantly reduce demand for our hosting services. Furthermore, it is possible that laws, regulations or directives that affect cryptocurrencies, cryptocurrency transaction processing or blockchain server hosting may change in a manner that may adversely affect our ability to conduct our business and operations in the relevant jurisdiction.
 
In addition, various foreign jurisdictions either have adopted or may adopt laws, regulations or directives that affect cryptocurrencies, cryptocurrency networks and their users and hosting service providers that fall within such jurisdictions’ regulatory scope. Such laws, regulations or directives may conflict with those of the United States, may negatively impact the acceptance of cryptocurrencies by users, merchants and service providers outside of the United States and may therefore impede the growth of cryptocurrency use. A number of countries, including India, South Korea and Russia, among others, currently have a more restrictive stance toward cryptocurrencies and, thereby, have reduced the rate of expansion of cryptocurrency use, as well as cryptocurrency transaction processing, in each of those countries.
 
Governments may in the future take regulatory actions that prohibit or severely restrict the right to acquire, own, hold, sell, use or trade cryptocurrencies or to exchange cryptocurrencies for fiat currency. Ownership of, holding or trading in cryptocurrencies may then be considered illegal and subject to sanction. Governments may also take regulatory action that may increase the cost and/or subject cryptocurrency mining companies to additional regulation.
 
By extension, similar actions by governments may result in the restriction of the acquisition, ownership, holding, selling, use or trading in the capital stock of cryptocurrency mining companies, including our common stock. Such a restriction could result in us liquidating our cryptocurrency inventory at unfavorable prices and may adversely affect our shareholders. The effect of any regulatory change, either by federal, state, local or foreign governments or any self-regulatory agencies, on us or our potential hosting customers is impossible to predict, but such change could be substantial and may require us or our potential hosting customers to cease certain or all operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Current and future legislation and rulemaking regarding cryptocurrencies may result in extraordinary, non-recurring expenses and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Current and future legislation and rulemaking by the CFTC and SEC or other regulators, including interpretations released by a regulatory authority, may impact the manner in which cryptocurrencies are treated. For example, cryptocurrencies derivatives are not excluded from the definition of “commodity future” by the CFTC. Furthermore, according to the CFTC, cryptocurrencies fall within the definition of a commodity under the Commodities Exchange Act (the “CEA”) and as a result, we may be required to register and comply with additional regulations under the CEA, including additional periodic reporting and disclosure standards and requirements. We may also be required to register as a commodity pool operator and to register as a commodity pool with the CFTC through the National Futures Association. If we are required to register with the CFTC or another governmental or self-regulatory authority, the scope of our business and operations may be constrained by the rules of such authority and we may be forced to incur additional expenses in the form of licensing fees, professional fees and other costs of compliance.
 
The SEC has issued guidance and made numerous statements regarding the application of securities laws to cryptocurrencies. For example, on July 25, 2017, the SEC issued a Report of Investigation (the “Report”) which concluded that tokens offered and sold by the Decentralized Autonomous Organization (“DAO”), a digital decentralized autonomous organization and investor-directed venture capital fund for cryptocurrencies, were issued for the purpose of raising funds. The Report concluded that these tokens were “investment contracts” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act and Section 3(a)(10) of the Exchange Act, and therefore securities subject to the federal securities laws. In December 2017, the SEC issued a cease- and-desist letter to Munchee Inc., ordering that the company stop its initial coin offering of MUN Tokens on the grounds that it failed to file a registration statement or qualify for an exemption from registration. Similar to the tokens issued by the DAO, the SEC found that the MUN Tokens satisfied the definition of an “investment contract,” and were therefore subject to the federal securities laws. In February 2018, both the SEC and CFTC further reiterated their concerns regarding cryptocurrencies in written testimony to the Senate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee. On March 7, 2018, the SEC released a “Statement on Potentially Unlawful Online Platforms for Trading Digital Assets,” and reiterated that, if a platform “offers trading of cryptocurrencies that are securities” and “operates as ‘exchange,’ as defined by the federal securities laws,” the platform must register with the SEC as a national securities exchange or be exempt from registration. The SEC’s statement serves as a notice to operators of any platforms, including secondary market trading platforms, which the SEC is actively monitoring for potentially fraudulent or manipulative behavior in the market for security tokens, as the SEC has cautioned recently in the context of ICOs. On November 16, 2018, the SEC released a “Statement on Digital Asset Securities Issuance and Trading,” and emphasized that market participants must adhere to the SEC’s well-established and well-functioning federal securities law framework when dealing with technological innovations, regardless of whether the securities are issued in certificated form or using new technologies, such as blockchain. This has all been followed by additional statements and guidance from the SEC including no-action letters relating to specific blockchain-based projects, and a Framework for “Investment Contract” Analysis of Digital Assets published by the Division of Corporation Finance on April 3, 2019. In an August 2021 interview, SEC Chairman Gensler signaled the SEC is contemplating a robust regulatory regime for cryptocurrencies and reiterated the SEC’s position that many cryptocurrencies are unregulated securities.
 
The SEC has been active in asserting its jurisdiction over ICOs and cryptocurrencies and in bringing enforcement cases. The SEC has directed enforcement activity toward cryptocurrencies, and more specifically, ICOs. In September 2017, the SEC created a new division known as the “Cyber Unit” to address, among other things, violations involving distributed ledger technology and ICOs, and filed a civil complaint in the Eastern District of New York charging a businessman and two companies with defrauding investors in a pair of so-called ICOs purportedly backed by investments in real estate and diamonds (see Securities and Exchange Commission v. REcoin Group Foundation, LLC, et al., Civil Action NO. 17-cv- 05725 (E.D.N.Y, filed Sept. 29, 2017)). Subsequently, the SEC has filed several orders instituting cease-and-desist proceedings against (i) Carrier EQ, Inc., d/b/a AirFox and Paragon Coin, Inc. in connection with their unregistered offerings of tokens (see CarrierEQ, Inc., Rel. No. 33-10575 (Nov. 16, 2018) and Paragon Coin, Inc., Rel. No. 33-10574 (Nov. 16, 2018), respectively), (ii) Crypto Asset Management, LP for failing to register a hedge fund formed for the purpose of investing in cryptocurrencies as an investment company (see Crypto Asset Management, LP and Timothy Enneking, Rel. No. 33-10544 (Sept. 11, 2018)), (iii) TokenLot LLC for failing to register as a broker-dealer, even though it did not meet the definition of an exchange (see Tokenlot LLC, Lenny Kugel, and EliL. Lewitt, Rel. No. 33-10543 (Sept. 11, 2018)) and (iv) EtherDelta’s founder for failing either to register as a national securities exchange or to operate pursuant to an exemption from registration as an exchange after creating a platform that clearly fell within the definition of an exchange (see Zachary Coburn, Rel. No. 34-84553 (Nov. 8, 2018)).
 
On June 4, 2019, the SEC filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York against Kik Interactive, Inc. with respect to its September 2017 offering of Kin. According to articles published by various news outlets, the SEC has allegedly issued numerous subpoenas and information requests to technology companies, advisers and individuals involved in the cryptocurrency space and ICOs, as part of a broad inquiry into the cryptocurrency market.
 
A number of proposed ICOs have sought to rely on Regulation A and have filed with the SEC a Form 1-A covering a distribution of a digital token. Two such offerings were qualified in July 2019. In addition, some token offerings have been commenced as private securities offerings intended to be exempt from SEC registration. Further, the SEC has yet to approve listing and trading any exchange-traded products (such as ETFs) holding cryptocurrencies. The SEC has taken various actions against persons or entities that have allegedly misused cryptocurrencies, engaged in fraudulent schemes (i.e., Ponzi scheme) and/or engaged in the sale of tokens that were deemed securities by the SEC.
 
Although our activities are not focused on raising capital or assisting others that do so, the federal securities laws are very broad. We cannot provide assurance as to whether the SEC will continue or increase its enforcement with respect to cryptocurrencies or ICOs, including taking enforcement action against any person engaged in the sale of unregistered securities in violation of the Securities Act or any person acting as an unregistered investment company in violation of the Investment Company Act. Because the SEC has held that certain cryptocurrencies are securities based on the current rules and law, we may be required to register and comply with the rules and regulations under federal securities laws.
 
We cannot be certain as to how future regulatory developments will impact the treatment of cryptocurrencies under the law, including, but not limited to, whether cryptocurrencies will be classified as a security, commodity, currency and/or new or other existing classification. Such additional regulations may result in extraordinary, non-recurring expenses, thereby materially and adversely affecting investment in us. If we determine not to comply with such additional regulatory and registration requirements, we may seek to cease certain or all of our operations. Any such action could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Federal or state agencies may impose additional regulatory burdens on our business. Changing laws and regulations and changing enforcement policies and priorities have the potential to cause additional expenditures, restrictions, and delays in connection with our business operations.
 
Federal and state laws and regulations may be subject to change or changes in enforcement policies or priorities, including changes that may result from changes in the political landscape and changing technologies. Future legislation and regulations, changes to existing laws and regulations, or interpretations thereof, or changes in enforcement policies or priorities, could require significant management attention and cause additional expenditures, restrictions, and delays in connection with our business operations.
 
Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders, customers, government regulators and other market participants with respect to our Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) policies may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.
 
Companies across all industries and around the globe are facing increasing scrutiny relating to their ESG policies. Investors, lenders and other market participants are increasingly focused on ESG practices and in recent years have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments. In February 2021, the Acting Chair of the SEC issued a statement directing the Division of Corporation Finance to enhance its focus on climate-related disclosure in public company filings and in March 2021 the SEC announced the creation of a Climate and ESG Task Force in the Division of Enforcement. The increased focus and activism related to ESG may hinder our access to capital, as investors and lenders may reconsider their capital investment allocation as a result of their assessment of our ESG practices. If we do not adapt to or comply with investor, lender or other industry shareholder expectations and standards and potential government regulations, which are evolving but may relate to the suitable deployment of electric power, or which are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, our reputation may suffer which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We may be subject to risks associated with misleading and/or fraudulent disclosure or use by the creators of cryptocurrencies.
 
Generally, we rely primarily on a combination of white papers and other disclosure documents prepared by the creators of applicable cryptocurrencies, as well as on our management’s ability to obtain adequate information to evaluate the potential implications of transacting in these cryptocurrencies. However, such white papers and other disclosure documents and information may contain misleading and/or fraudulent statements (which may include statements concerning the creators’ ability to deliver in a timely fashion the product and/or service disclosed in their white papers and other disclosure documents) and/or may not reveal any unlawful activities by the creators. Recently, there has been an increasing number of investigations and lawsuits by the SEC and the CFTC involving cryptocurrency creators for fraud and misappropriation, among other charges. Additionally, FinCEN has increased its enforcement efforts involving cryptocurrency creators regarding compliance with anti-money laundering and Know-Your-Customer laws.
 
To the extent that any of these creators make misleading and/or fraudulent disclosures or do not comply with federal, state or foreign laws, or if we are unable to uncover all material information about these cryptocurrencies and/or their creators, we may not be able to make a fully informed business decision relating to our transacting in or otherwise involving such cryptocurrencies, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our management and compliance personnel have limited experience handling a listed cryptocurrency mining- related services company, and our compliance program has a recent history only.
 
Our management and compliance personnel have limited experience in handling regulatory and compliance matters relating to a listed cryptocurrency mining-related services company. Our key compliance documents and compliance programs, such as AML and KYC procedures, also have a recent history only. We believe that we have measures designed to limit our counterparty risks. For example, we have been monitoring our investments closely and limiting our exposure to the investment risk by including in our operation strategy the requirements to invest only in robust wealth management products and that the investments need to be redeemed within the same fiscal quarter. In order to further limit our exposure to counterparty risk, we adopted an operation strategy in December 2022, pursuant to which we shall not enter into any digital asset based lending or wealth management products in the foreseeable future. While we have been devoting a substantial amount of time and resources to various compliance initiatives and risk management measures, including but not limited to, recruiting a dedicated team of compliance expertise, we cannot assure you the practical application and effectiveness of our compliance program and risk management measures, nor that there will not be a failure in detecting regulatory compliance issues or managing risk exposure, which may adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Risks Related to Our Securities
 
A market for Class A Ordinary Shares may not develop, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
An active trading market for Class A Ordinary Shares may never develop or, if developed, it may not be sustained. You may be unable to sell your Class A Ordinary Shares unless a market can be established and sustained.
 
The market price of Class A Ordinary Shares may be volatile, and you may lose some or all of your investment.
 
The price of Class A Ordinary Shares may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including:
 

changes in the industries in which we operate;
 

developments involving our competitors;
 

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
 

variations in our operating performance and the performance of our competitors in general;
 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;
 

publication of research reports by securities analysts about us or our competitors or our industry;
 

the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
 

actions by holders in respect of any of their Class A Ordinary Shares;
 

additions and departures of key personnel;
 

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;
 

changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of debt;
 

the volume of Class A Ordinary Shares available for public sale; and
 

general economic and political conditions, such as the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak, recessions, volatility in the markets, interest rates, local and national elections, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations, corruption, political instability, and acts of war or terrorism.
 
In particular, the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares could be subject to extreme volatility and fluctuations in response to industry-wide developments beyond our control, such as continued industry-wide fallout from the Chapter 11 bankruptcy filings of cryptocurrency exchanges FTX (including its affiliated hedge fund Alameda Research LLC), crypto hedge fund Three Arrows, crypto miners Compute North and Core Scientific and crypto lenders Celsius Network, Voyager Digital and BlockFi throughout calendar year 2022. Although, as mentioned elsewhere in this annual report, we have no exposure to any of the cryptocurrency market participants that filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2022, or who are known to have experienced excessive redemptions, suspended redemptions or have crypto assets of their customers unaccounted for; and we do not have any assets, material or otherwise, that may not be recovered due to these bankruptcies or excessive or suspended redemptions; the price of Class A Ordinary Shares may still not be immune to unfavorable investor sentiment resulting from these developments in the broader cryptocurrency industry and you may experience depreciation of price of Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the applicable Nasdaq listing rules and, as a result, will qualify for exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements. If we rely on these exemptions, you will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.
 
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of applicable Nasdaq listing rules as a result of Mr. Jihan Wu’s controlling a majority of the voting power of our outstanding ordinary shares. Under these rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors is held by an individual, group or another company is a “controlled company.” For so long as we remain a “controlled company,” we may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including the requirements:
 

that a majority of the board of directors consists of independent directors;
 

for an annual performance evaluation of the nominating, corporate governance and compensation committees;
 

that we have a nominating and corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and
 

that we have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibility.
 
We currently intend to use these exemptions as appropriate, and we may continue to use all or some of these exemptions in the future. As a result, you may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of the Nasdaq corporate governance requirements.
 
We may issue additional Class A Ordinary Shares or other equity or convertible debt securities without approval of the holders of Class A Ordinary Shares, which would dilute existing ownership interests and may depress the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
We will continue to require significant capital investment to support our business, and we may issue additional Class A Ordinary Shares or other equity or convertible debt securities of equal or senior rank in the future without approval of the holders of the Class A Ordinary Shares in certain circumstances.
 
Our issuance of additional Class A Ordinary Shares or convertible debt securities of equal or senior rank would have the following effects: (i) our existing holders’ of ordinary shares proportionate ownership interest in the Company may decrease, (ii) the amount of cash available per Ordinary Share, including for payment of dividends in the future, may decrease, (iii) the relative voting power of each previously outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares may be diminished and (iv) the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares may decline. Under certain circumstances, each Class V Ordinary Share will automatically convert into one Class A Ordinary Share (as adjusted for share splits, share combination and similar transactions occurring), but as the conversion ratio is one-to-one, such mandatory conversion would not have a dilutive effect.
 
Furthermore, employees, directors and consultants of the Company and our subsidiaries and affiliates hold, and are expected to be granted equity awards under the Company’s incentive plan. You will experience additional dilution when those equity awards become vested and exercised, for the Company’s Ordinary Shares.
 
The dual-class structure of our ordinary shares may adversely affect price and liquidity of Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
S&P Dow Jones and FTSE Russell have recently announced changes to their eligibility criteria for inclusion of shares of public companies in certain indices, including the S&P 500, to exclude companies with multiple classes of shares and companies whose public shareholders hold no more than 5% of total voting power from being added to such indices. In addition, several shareholder advisory firms have announced their opposition to the use of multiple class capital structures. As a result, the dual-class structure of our ordinary shares may prevent the inclusion of the Class A Ordinary Shares in such indices and may cause shareholder advisory firms to publish negative commentary about our corporate governance practices or otherwise seek to cause us to change our capital structure. Any such exclusion from indices could result in a less active trading market for the Class A Ordinary Shares. Any actions or publications by shareholder advisory firms critical of our corporate governance practices or capital structure could also adversely affect the value of the Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
Volatility in the price of Class A Ordinary Shares could subject us to securities class action litigation.
 
In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business.
 
Future sales, or the possibility of future sales of, a substantial number of our Ordinary Shares may depress the price of such securities.
 
Future sales of a substantial number of our Ordinary Shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of the Company’s Ordinary Shares and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.
 
On August 8, 2023, we entered into an ordinary shares purchase agreement (the “Equity Financing Purchase Agreement”) and a registration rights agreement (the “Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement”) with B. Riley Principal Capital II, LLC (“B. Riley Principal Capital II”). Pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, subject to the satisfaction of the conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, we have the right to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II up to US$150,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, from time to time during the term of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. We filed a registration statement, which was declared effective on September 20, 2023, to register the resale of up to 150,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares. Given this substantial number of shares available for resale, the sale of shares by such holders, or the perception in the market that holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could increase the volatility of the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares or result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Further, the purchase price for the shares that we may sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under our committed equity financing will fluctuate based on the price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Depending on market liquidity at the time, sales of such shares may cause the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares to fall. If and when we do sell Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, after B. Riley Principal Capital II has acquired the Class A Ordinary Shares, B. Riley Principal Capital II may resell all, some, or none of those shares at any time or from time to time in its discretion. Therefore, sales to B. Riley Principal Capital II by us could result in substantial dilution to the interests of other holders of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Additionally, the sale of a substantial number of shares of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, or the anticipation of such sales, could make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that we might otherwise wish to effect sales. The decision to sell any shares of our Class A Ordinary Shares to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the committed equity financing will depend on market conditions, the trading prices of our Class A Ordinary Shares and other considerations, and we cannot guarantee the extent to which we may utilize the committed equity financing.
 
On March 18, 2024, we entered into an At Market Issuance Sales Agreement with B. Riley Securities, Inc., Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., Needham & Company, LLC, Roth Capital Partners, LLC, StockBlock Securities LLC and Rosenblatt Securities Inc. (collectively, the “sales agents”), pursuant to which we may offer and sell our Class A Ordinary Shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $250,000,000 from time to time through or to the sales agents, as agent or principal. It is not possible to predict the actual number of Class A Ordinary Shares, if any, we will sell under such agreement, or the actual gross proceeds resulting from those sales.
 
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert our management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.
 
We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, Nasdaq listing requirements and other applicable securities rules and regulations. As such, we will incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses. These expenses may increase even more if we no longer qualify as an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual and current reports with respect to our business and operating results. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We may need to hire more employees or engage outside consultants to comply with these requirements, which will increase our costs and expenses.
 
Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time-consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We expect these laws and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to render some activities more time-consuming and costly, although we are currently unable to estimate these costs with any degree of certainty.
 
Many members of our management team will have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage the transition to being a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and regulations and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. The need to establish the corporate infrastructure demanded of a public company may divert the management’s attention from implementing its growth strategy, which could prevent us from improving our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and consequently we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. These additional obligations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our finance and audit committee and nomination and compensation committee, and to attract and retain qualified executive officers.
 
As a result of disclosure of information in this annual report and in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which we believe may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business and operating results could be adversely affected, and, even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could cause an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, prospects and reputation.
 
We previously identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. In the event of any failure to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report its financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, holders of the Class A Ordinary Shares could lose confidence in our financial and other public reporting, which is likely to negatively affect our business and the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
Prior to the closing of the Business Combination, Bitdeer has been a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address Bitdeer’s internal controls and procedures. Bitdeer’s management has not completed an assessment of the effectiveness of Bitdeer’s internal control over financial reporting and Bitdeer’s independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of Bitdeer’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
During the audit of its financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2022, Bitdeer identified a material weakness in the design and operating effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting with respect to the Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013 Framework) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), concerning in particular the control environment due to lack of sufficient financial reporting and accounting personnel with appropriate knowledge to design, implement and operate key controls over financial reporting process to address complex and emerging technical accounting issues and related disclosures in accordance with IFRS. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of Bitdeer’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. As a consequence of this material weakness, accounting errors were identified in Bitdeer’s combined and consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2021 primarily related to revenue presentation in relation to the sales of mining machine business and the cash flow presentation related to the disposal of cryptocurrencies earned from revenue arrangements. The revenue and cost of revenue on the combined statements of operations and comprehensive loss and the operating and investing cash flows on the combined statements of cash flows have been previously restated. The material weakness could also result in other misstatements of Bitdeer’s accounts or disclosures, which may result in additional material misstatements in Bitdeer’s annual or interim financial statements that would not be prevented or detected.
 
Bitdeer has instituted plans to remediate the material weakness, including implementation of appropriate processes with the objective of improving the effectiveness of controls over financial reporting. Following the closing of the Business Combination, we have invested significant resources in our design and execution of our Sarbanes-Oxley Act compliance program, such as recruitment of qualified accounting personnel with sufficient knowledge and experience to address complex accounting issues, establishment of an internal audit team to monitor the internal control compliance over the financial reporting process, reassessing existing entity-level controls and, as necessary, implementing enhancements to such controls. Based on assessment performed by our management on the performance of certain remediation measures, we determined that as of December 31, 2023, the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting previously identified had been remediated. However, if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to develop and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. The failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements that could result in a restatement of our financial statements, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting also could adversely affect the results of periodic management evaluations and annual independent registered public accounting firm attestation reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting that we will eventually be required to include in our periodic reports that will be filed with the SEC. Ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we are listed, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements from prior periods. If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our financial condition and results of operations, and lead to a decline in the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
Recent market volatility could impact the stock price and trading volume of the Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
The trading market for the Class A Ordinary Shares could be impacted by recent market volatility. While we do not believe that we are more likely to be affected by market volatility than other public companies, recent stock run-ups, divergences in valuation ratios relative to those seen during traditional markets, high short interest or short squeezes, and strong and atypical retail investor interest in the markets may impact the demand for the Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
A possible “short squeeze” due to a sudden increase in demand of Class A Ordinary Shares that largely exceeds supply may lead to price volatility in the Class A Ordinary Shares. Investors may purchase Class A Ordinary Shares to hedge existing exposure or to speculate on the price of the Class A Ordinary Shares. Speculation on the price of Class A Ordinary Shares may involve both long and short exposures. To the extent aggregate short exposure exceeds the number of Class A Ordinary Shares available for purchase (for example, in the event that large redemption requests dramatically affect liquidity), investors with short exposure may have to pay a premium to repurchase Class A Ordinary Shares for delivery to lenders. Those repurchases may in turn, dramatically increase the price of the Class A Ordinary Shares. This is often referred to as a “short squeeze.” A short squeeze could lead to volatile price movements in the Class A Ordinary Shares that are not directly correlated to the operating performance of us.
 
We have not paid any dividend in the past, and investors may be dependent entirely on price appreciation of Class A Ordinary Shares for return on their investment subject to our future dividend policy.
 
We have not paid any dividend in the past. It is expected that we will retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. Therefore, investors should not rely on an investment in Class A Ordinary Shares as a source for any future dividend income.
 
Our board of directors will have complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Even if the board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on the future results of operations and cash flow, capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by the board of directors. There is no guarantee that the Class A Ordinary Shares will appreciate in value or that the trading price of the Class A Ordinary Shares will not decline.
 
If securities and industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research or cease publishing research about us, the price and trading volume of Class A Ordinary Shares could decline significantly.
 
The trading market for Class A Ordinary Shares will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We may be unable to sustain coverage by well-regarded securities and industry analysts. If either none or only a limited number of securities or industry analysts maintain coverage of us, or if these securities or industry analysts are not widely respected within the general investment community, the demand for Class A Ordinary Shares could decrease, which might cause our price and trading volume to decline significantly. In the event that we obtain securities or industry analyst coverage, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade their assessment of us or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price and liquidity for Class A Ordinary Shares could be negatively impacted.
 
We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to domestic public companies in the United States.
 
Because we are a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including: (i) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K with the SEC; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (iii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iv) the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.
 
We will be required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis through press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of Nasdaq. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information, which would be made available to you, were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.
 
As an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to holders of Class A Ordinary Shares than they would enjoy if we complied fully with Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards.
 
We are an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands listed on Nasdaq. Nasdaq market rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of our home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards applicable to domestic U.S. companies.
 
Among other things, we are not required to have: (i) a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors; (ii) a compensation committee consisting of independent directors; (iii) a nominating committee consisting of independent directors; or (iv) regularly scheduled executive sessions with only independent directors each year.
 
Although not required and as may be changed from time to time, we intend to have a majority- independent board of directors, a majority-independent compensation committee and a nominating committee. Subject to the foregoing, we intend to rely on the exemptions listed above. As a result, you may not be provided with the benefits of certain corporate governance requirements of Nasdaq applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.
 
You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under the law of the Cayman Islands, we conduct a substantial portion of our operations and a majority of our directors and executive officers reside outside of the United States.
 
We are an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, and will conduct a substantial portion of our operations through our subsidiary, Bitdeer, outside the United States. A substantial portion of our assets are located outside of the United States. A majority of our officers and directors reside outside the United States and a substantial portion of the assets of those persons are located outside of the United States. As a result, it could be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals outside of the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed upon under the applicable securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of the jurisdictions that comprise the Southeast Asian region could render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.
 
In addition, our corporate affairs will be governed by the amended and restated memorandum and articles of association of the Company, the Cayman Companies Act and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our ordinary shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law may not be as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a different body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, may have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands.
 
Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (other than our memorandum and articles of association, special resolutions, and our register of mortgages and charges) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors will have discretion under the amended and restated memorandum and articles of association of the Company to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our ordinary shareholders, but we are not obliged to make them available to the ordinary shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder to motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.
 
Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, differ significantly from requirements for companies incorporated in other jurisdictions such as the United States. To the extent we choose to follow home country practice with respect to corporate governance matters, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.
 
As a result of all of the above, our shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.
 
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined under the federal securities laws, and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make the Class A Ordinary Shares less attractive to investors.
 
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Securities Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including, among other things, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding shareholder advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As a result, holders of Ordinary Shares may not have access to certain information that they may deem important.
 
We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (i) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the closing of the Business Combination, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenues of at least US$1.235 billion, (c) or in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our shares that is held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the last business day of our prior second fiscal quarter, and (ii) the date on which we issued more than US$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. If some investors find the Class A Ordinary Shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for the Class A Ordinary Shares, the price of Class A Ordinary Shares may be more volatile and the price of the Class A Ordinary Shares may decline. After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we may incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC.
 
Risks Related to Taxation
 
We are subject to tax risks related to our multinational operations.
 
We are subject to taxes in various overseas jurisdictions where we operate. Tax laws and practices applicable in the various jurisdictions we operate in are complex and sophisticated, and we face risks of tax incompliance caused by misunderstanding of regional tax policies or different tax administration enforcement. Due to economic and political conditions, tax rates in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant changes. Our effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with different statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation.
 
We are also subject to the examination of tax returns and other tax matters by domestic and international tax authorities and governmental bodies. There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations. If our effective tax rates were to increase or if the ultimate determination of our taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, our financial condition, operating results and cash flows could be adversely affected.
 
We may be or become a PFIC, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
In general, a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year in which (i) 50% or more of the average value of its assets (generally determined on the basis of a weighted quarterly average) consists of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income, or (ii) 75% or more of its gross income consists of passive income. Passive income generally includes dividends, interest, royalties, rents, investment gains, net gains from the sales of property that does not give rise to any income and net gains from the sale of commodities (subject to certain exceptions, such as an exception for certain income derived in the active conduct of a trade or business). Cash and cash equivalents are, and cryptocurrency balances are likely, passive assets. The value of goodwill will generally be treated as an active or passive asset based on the nature of the income produced in the activity to which the goodwill is attributable. For purposes of the PFIC rules, a non-U.S. corporation that owns, directly or indirectly, at least 25% by value of the stock of another corporation is treated as if it held its proportionate share of the assets of the other corporation, and received directly its proportionate share of the income of the other corporation.
 
Based on the Company’s analysis of its income, assets, activities, and market capitalization, the Company believes that it was not a PFIC for its taxable year ended December 31, 2023. However, the Company’s PFIC status for any taxable year is a factual annual determination that can be made only after the end of that year and will depend on the composition of the Company’s income and assets and the value of its assets from time to time (including the value of its goodwill, which may be determined in large part by reference to the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares from time to time, which could be volatile). In addition, the risk of the Company being a PFIC for any taxable year will increase if its market capitalization declines substantially during that year. Furthermore, whether and to which extent the Company’s income and assets, including goodwill, will be characterized as active or passive will depend on various factors that are subject to uncertainty, including the Company’s future business plan and the application of laws that are subject to varying interpretation. For example, there is no authority that directly addresses the proper treatment of certain items of the Company’s income, such as income from cryptocurrency self-mining, hash rate sharing, or hosting for purposes of the PFIC rules and, although the Company currently treats these items of income as active, such treatment is uncertain. Moreover, certain of the Company’s business activities generate passive income and, although the amount of such income is currently small, the Company’s risk of being a PFIC will increase if the proportion of the Company’s revenue earned from such business activities increases in future taxable years. Accordingly, there can be no assurances that the Company will not be a PFIC for its current or any future taxable year, and the Company’s U.S. counsel expresses no opinion with respect to the Company’s PFIC status for any taxable year.
 
If the Company is (or is treated with respect to a U.S. Holder as) a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder owns Class A Ordinary Shares, the U.S. Holder generally will be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences, including increased tax liability on disposition gains and certain “excess distributions” and additional reporting requirements. Prospective U.S. Holders of Class A Ordinary Shares should consult their tax advisers regarding the application of the PFIC rules in their particular circumstances.
 
Because under certain attribution rules the Company’s non-U.S. subsidiaries may be treated as controlled foreign corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes, there could be adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to certain U.S. Holders of Class A Ordinary Shares who own, directly or indirectly, ten percent or more of Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
For U.S. federal income tax purposes, each “Ten Percent Shareholder” (as defined below) in a non-U.S. corporation that is classified as a “controlled foreign corporation” (a “CFC”) generally is required to include in income such Ten Percent Shareholder’s pro rata share of the CFC’s “Subpart F income,” investment of earnings in U.S. property, and “global intangible low-taxed income,” even if the CFC has made no distributions to its shareholders. Subpart F income generally includes dividends, interest, rents, royalties, gains from the sale of securities and income from certain transactions with related parties, and “global intangible low-taxed income” generally consists of net income of the CFC, other than Subpart F income and certain other types of income, in excess of certain thresholds. A non-U.S. corporation generally will be classified as a CFC if Ten Percent Shareholders own, directly, indirectly or constructively (through attribution), more than 50% of either the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote of such corporation or of the total value of the stock of such corporation. A “Ten Percent Shareholder” is a United States person (as defined by the Code) who owns or is considered to own, directly, indirectly or constructively, 10% or more of either the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote of such corporation or the total value of the stock of such corporation. The determination of CFC status is complex and includes certain “downward attribution” rules pursuant to which the Company’s non-U.S. subsidiaries may be treated as constructively owned by the Company’s U.S. subsidiaries and, therefore, the Company’s non-U.S. subsidiaries may be treated as CFCs. Prospective holders of Class A Ordinary Shares that may be or become Ten Percent Shareholders should consult their tax advisors with respect to the application of the CFC rules in their particular circumstances.
 
Future changes to tax laws could materially and adversely affect the Company and reduce net returns to the Company’s shareholders.
 
The Company’s tax treatment is subject to changes in tax laws, regulations, and treaties, or the interpretation thereof, tax policy initiatives and reforms under consideration, and the practices of tax authorities in jurisdictions in which the Company operates. For instance, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 imposes, among other rules, a 15% minimum tax on the book income of certain large corporations and a 1% excise tax on certain corporate stock repurchases. The income and other tax rules in the jurisdictions in which the Company operates are constantly under review by taxing authorities and other governmental bodies. Changes to tax laws (which changes may have retroactive application) could adversely affect the Company or its shareholders. The Company is unable to predict what tax proposals may be proposed or enacted in the future or what effect such changes would have on the Company’s business, but such changes, to the extent they are brought into tax legislation, regulations, policies or practices, could affect the Company’s financial position and overall or effective tax rates in the future in countries where the Company has operations and where the Company is organized or resident for tax purposes, and increase the complexity, burden and cost of tax compliance. The Company urges investors to consult with their legal and tax advisers regarding the implication of potential changes in tax laws on an investment in Class A Ordinary Shares.
 
Cryptocurrencies and transactions may be subject to further taxation in the future.
 
In recent years, the rise of cryptocurrency prices and transaction volume has attracted the attention of tax authorities. As the laws governing cryptocurrencies are still evolving, the tax treatment of cryptocurrencies in various jurisdictions is subject to change. New laws or legislations, such as the ones introduced in the United States under the “Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act,” commonly referred to as the “infrastructure bill,” which was signed into law on November 15, 2021, will include tax reporting provisions that apply to cryptocurrencies. This reporting requirement took effect on January 1, 2023, and the implementation of these requirements is ongoing. We are closely monitoring the situation and waiting for more issuance of updated guidance from government agencies. Introductions of more stringent provisions on reporting or surveillance of cryptocurrencies and cryptocurrencies will likely be an ongoing trend from authorities worldwide. We caution that these new provisions may direct or indirectly impact scrutiny and assessments in relation to taxation. While some countries have expressed an intention to or have imposed taxation on cryptocurrencies and transactions, other tax authorities have been silent. As there is considerable uncertainty over the taxation of cryptocurrencies, there is no guarantee that the cryptocurrencies and transactions denominated in cryptocurrencies will not be subject to further taxation in the future, including but not limited to additional taxes and increased tax rate. These events could reduce the economic return of cryptocurrency and increase the holding costs of cryptocurrencies, rendering the cryptocurrency mining solutions we provide less attractive to customers, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
ITEM 4.
INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
 
A.
History and Development of the Company
 
We were created as Bitdeer Technologies Holding Company in January 2021 to separate the Cloud Hash Rate business, the self-mining business and the business of providing dynamic hosting solutions (collectively, the “Bitdeer Business”) and the mining pool business, including the ownership of and registration right to the domain name btc.com (the “BTC.com Pool Business” or “BTC”), following a corporate reorganization of BitMain Technologies Holding Company (collectively with its subsidiaries, “Bitmain”). The separation from Bitmain resulted in the transfer of certain assets, liabilities and contracts related to the Bitdeer Business and the BTC.com Pool Business at their historical book values from Bitmain to us on January 26, 2021, when Bitmain distributed by way of dividend in kind the shares of us to the then existing Bitmain shareholders and we and our subsidiaries began to operate on a stand-alone basis.
 
In February 2021, we established Blockchain Alliance Technologies Holding Company (“Blockchain Alliance”) to separate the BTC.com Pool Business following a corporate reorganization of our group. The separation was consummated on April 15, 2021, when we distributed by way of dividend in kind the shares of Blockchain Alliance to the then existing shareholders of our group.
 
In April 2023, the Business Combination was completed, upon which Bitdeer Technologies Group became the ultimate corporate parent of our group, and the Class A Ordinary Shares were listed on the Nasdaq under the symbol “BTDR.” Certain additional information about us is set forth in “Item 4.B - Business Overview” and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Our registered office is Ogier Global (Cayman) Limited, 89 Nexus Way, Camana Bay, Grand Cayman, KY1-9009, Cayman Islands, and our principal executive office is 08 Kallang Avenue, Aperia tower 1, #09-03/04, Singapore 339509. Our principal website address is https://www.bitdeer.com. We do not incorporate the information contained on, or accessible through, our websites into this annual report, and you should not consider it a part of this annual report. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The SEC’s website is www.sec.gov.
 
B.
Business Overview
 
The following discussion reflects the business of Bitdeer. Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this section to the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” or “Bitdeer” refer collectively to Bitdeer Technologies Holding Company and its subsidiaries.
 
Overview
 
We are a world-leading technology company for blockchain and high-performance computing. We are committed to providing comprehensive computing solutions for our customers. We handle complex processes involved in computing such as equipment procurement, transport logistics, datacenter design and construction, equipment management, and daily operations. We also offer advanced cloud capabilities to customers with high demand for artificial intelligence. Headquartered in Singapore, we currently operate six mining datacenters in the United States, Norway, and Bhutan with an aggregate electricity capacity of 895MW as of February 29, 2024. From these mining datacenters, we generate hash rate under management which is categorized into proprietary and hosting hash rate. As of February 29, 2024, our proprietary hash rate reached 8.4 EH/s. Together with the 13.6 EH/s hosting hash rate generated from mining machines hosted in our mining datacenters, we possessed a total of 22.0 EH/s of hash rate under management as of February 29, 2024.
 
To date, we primarily operate three business lines - “self-mining,” “hash rate sharing” and “hosting.” Self-mining refers to cryptocurrency mining for our own account, which allows us to directly capture the high appreciation potential of cryptocurrency. We offer two types of hash rate sharing solutions, Cloud Hash Rate and Hash Rate Marketplace. Through Cloud Hash Rate, we sell our proprietary hash rate to customers. We offer hash rate subscription plans at fixed price and share mining income with them under certain arrangements. Through Hash Rate Marketplace, we connect reliable third-party hash rate suppliers with hash rate users to facilitate hash rate sales and generate revenue from charging service fees. Our hosting services offer customers one-stop mining machine hosting solutions encompassing deployment, maintenance and management services for efficient cryptocurrency mining. Among a wide selection of hosting services, customers can either subscribe to our Cloud Hosting service for the specified mining machines from which they derive computing power under a “group-buying” model, or send their mining machines to our mining datacenters for hosting under the General Hosting option or the Membership Hosting option. All of our three business lines are supported by Minerplus, our self-developed integrated intelligent software platform, which offers software support to significantly reduce time needed for daily maintenance and mining machine upgrade and substantially decrease operation and maintenance headcount.
 
We source mining machines from a wide variety of manufacturers and traders with whom we have built robust relationships over the years. As a result, the majority of our mining machines are spot machines for the most recent and most commonly used models procured at a favorable price, which ensures high energy efficiency and stable hash rate supply both in quality and in quantum. We also engage in the sales of mining machines from time to time. We stay at the forefront of technology development. As a market player who is able to obtain a hash rate unit of 1TH/s through our hash rate slicing technology, we have been successfully maintaining a less than 1% fluctuation for 99% of our hash rate sales contracts as of December 31, 2023.
 
In October 2023, we entered into a NVIDIA Partner Network Master Agreement with NVIDIA Corporation (“NVIDIA”) to participate in NVIDIA’s Cloud Service Provider (CSP) Program. We completed the deployment and successful testing of our NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD H100 system in March 2024, becoming the first cloud service platform in the Asian region to offer NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD H100 service. The service provides our customers with access to NVIDIA AI supercomputing to help them accelerate their development of generative AI, large language models (LLMs), and other AI workloads.
 
As of February 29, 2024, we generated 8.4 EH/s proprietary hash rate from our self-owned mining machines and operated mining datacenters with an aggregate electricity capacity of 895MW. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, our total net revenue was US$394.7 million, US$333.3 million and US$368.6 million, respectively. We generated net profit of US$82.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, and incurred net loss of US$60.4 million and US$56.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, our adjusted EBITDA was US$281.8 million, US$93.2 million and US$100.3 million, respectively. We incurred adjusted profits of US$171.0 million, US$30.3 million and US$22.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively, where adjusted profit/(loss) is defined as profit/(loss) adjusted to exclude the listing fee and share-based payment expenses under IFRS 2.
 
The crypto asset market, especially the price of Bitcoin, has been highly volatile. Industry-wide developments such as the industry-wide fallout from the Chapter 11 bankruptcy filings of cryptocurrency exchange FTX (including its affiliated hedge fund Alameda Research LLC), crypto hedge fund Three Arrows, crypto miners Compute North and Core Scientific and crypto lenders Celsius Network, Voyager Digital and BlockFi throughout calendar year 2022 are beyond our control. We are not directly affected by these incidents, as we do not have any counterparty credit exposure to the above-mentioned firms nor expect their potential bankruptcy to have any direct impact on our business or operations.
 
We believe that, as compared to many other participants in the crypto assets markets, we are more resilient to cryptocurrency price volatility as our “hash rate sharing” and “hosting” businesses allow us to smooth the impact of cryptocurrency price volatility, as compared to “self-mining.”
 
Our Strengths
 
We believe that the following strengths contribute to our success and differentiate us from our competitors.
 
World’s leading scale of proprietary hash rate
 
As of February 29, 2024, our proprietary hash rate operated in our global mining datacenters reached 8.4 EH/s. Our proprietary hash rate provides us with a clear edge across our business lines and anchors our unique business model. High proprietary hash rate increases our chance of success in obtaining cryptocurrency rewards. It also allows a stable supply of hash rate products to our customers through Cloud Hash Rate. Leveraging our track record of operating the Cloud Hash Rate business, we boosted user confidence in our brand and were able to launch Hash Rate Marketplace as our hash rate retail platform in 2021. In addition to proprietary hash rate, we also generate hosting hash rate, the other category of our total hash rate under management, from mining machines that are hosted in our mining datacenters. Together with the 13.6 EH/s hosting hash rate, we managed a total of 22.0 EH/s hash rate as of February 29, 2024. As of February 29, 2024, we operated six mining datacenters in the United States, Norway and Bhutan to support our proprietary and hosting hash rate.
 
Unique business model powers organic hash rate expansion by generating instant and continuous cash
 
We have established a business model that allows us to constantly reinforce our market-leading position and outpace our competitors in terms of scaling up our proprietary hash rate. A prevailing strategy to profit from proprietary hash rate is mining. The cryptocurrencies mined can be sold at a profit when their market value is high enough to cover the cost of mining machines, electricity fees and other mining-related expenses. While we remain engaged in self-mining business to capture the high appreciation potential of cryptocurrency, we strategically allocate a significant amount of proprietary hash rate to hash rate sales through Cloud Hash Rate, to enable instant cash payback upon customers’ subscription to our hash rate plans. We have successfully boosted sales for hash rate, in particular, for long-term hash rate subscription plans (i.e., plans with a term longer than 720 days) by providing an increasing amount of reliable and transparent hash rate supply. We generally generate proceeds from hash rate sales under long-term hash rate subscription plans that approximate the purchase cost of mining machines. Therefore, we are able to continuously grow our proprietary hash rate by funding the purchase of additional mining fleets with the instant cash collected from hash rate sales using our existing mining fleets, significantly reducing our payback period to one month, compared to the long payback period associated with cryptocurrency mining activities, which is typically from 6 to 18 months. This unique model also allows us to smooth the impact of cryptocurrency price volatility as our proceeds from hash rate sales are less directly related to cryptocurrency price compared to self-mining.
 
Ample power supply and low electricity cost secured by global mining datacenters
 
We strategically opened six mining datacenters in the United States, Norway and Bhutan. As of February 29, 2024, our mining datacenters had a power supply of 895MW. We plan to expand our footprints across the globe to increase our total electricity capacity to approximately 1,970MW, including 575MW power supply under construction and 500MW power supply “in the pipeline,” contracted or negotiated but not yet under active construction, as of February 29, 2024. We commenced land preparation for the construction of a 221MW datacenter in Ohio, United States, with ground leveling expected to commence in April 2024, where the construction of mining datacenter is expected to be completed in 2025. Our premier mining datacenters allowed us to reach an average electricity cost of our mining datacenters to US$38/MWh for the year ended December 31, 2023. Our ability to secure ample power supply with low electricity cost is underpinned by our top-notch experience and capabilities in global mining datacenters deployment and operation. We pioneer in deploying and operating mining datacenters globally. With experience in site selection, facility design, construction and maintenance in over 30 locations around the globe, our dedicated global team for mining datacenter construction understands the critical needs of Bitcoin mining as well as the complex and constantly evolving global landscape of electricity supply. They also have extensive connections with local electricity experts and power enterprises around the world. We are the first in the industry to develop the “PERT” approach to secure prime locations for our mining datacenters, which stands for a comprehensive site selection approach encompassing local electricity and cryptocurrency mining Policy, Electricity cost, Resources and connections, and Technical feasibility. We believe we can continue to apply this systematic approach, our insights and rich execution experience to global mining datacenter construction in the future, and hence achieve advantages in electricity capacity and electricity costs among our competitors.
 
Visionary management team with a proven track record of innovation and execution
 
Our success is driven by a passionate, visionary, tech-savvy and entrepreneurial management team with a proven execution track record. This management team is led by our founder, Mr. Jihan Wu, a pioneer and leading figure in the cryptocurrency industry. Mr. Wu is viewed as an early advocate of cryptocurrency who introduced the Bitcoin Whitepaper into the Sinophone world. Our management team has extensive experience in the cryptocurrency industry, encompassing research and development, mining and sales of mining machines, and many of them are pioneers in mining datacenters construction and operation.
 
Our Business Lines and Software Infrastructure
 
To date, we primarily operate three business lines - “self-mining,” “hash rate sharing” and “hosting,” all of which are supported by Minerplus, our self-developed integrated intelligent software platform, to enhance operational efficiency.
 
Self-mining
 
We mine cryptocurrencies, primarily Bitcoins, for our own account. Self-mining allows us to capture the high appreciation potential of cryptocurrency to support our future expansion and operation. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively, we generated US$191.7 million, US$62.4 million and US$111.7 million in revenue from self-mining. Historically, around 50% to 80% of our proprietary hash rate was utilized to support our self-mining, with the rest available for sale to customers through Cloud Hash Rate. However, we retain the flexibility to allocate our proprietary hash rate to either self-mining or Cloud Hash Rate, primarily based on our view of the Bitcoin market trends.
 
In March 2024, we successfully tested our first Bitcoin mining chip, the SEAL01,  which is designed for integration into our new SEALMINER A1 mining machines. We plan to install our own SEALMINER A1 mining machines at our mining datacenters in North America and Norway as part of our plan to expand the self-mining business.

Hash rate sharing
 
We offer two types of hash rate sharing solutions, Cloud Hash Rate and Hash Rate Marketplace, to support cryptocurrency mining activities globally with convenient, transparent and reliable hash rate.
 

Cloud Hash Rate. Through Cloud Hash Rate, customers enter into hash rate contracts with us to subscribe to the hash rate derived from our self-owned mining machines, saving themselves from purchasing, installing or hosting mining machines. Cloud Hash Rate features authentic and transparent hash rate products as users can track the hash rate output on their chosen third-party mining pool, easily ascertain that they receive the right value and receive payments directly from mining pools. With our hash rate slicing and hash rate scheduling technologies, we are able to maintain a less than 1% fluctuation for 99% of our hash rate contracts as of December 31, 2023, and provide our customers 100% continuous online computing power for series of cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Filecoin, Litecoin, Nervos CKB, Zcash, etc., subject to stable electricity supply. We offer our customers various hash rate subscription plans, primarily under (i) “classic mode” and (ii) “accelerator mode”, which enables customers to shorten investment costs recovery cycle. After a user subscribes to a cloud hash rate plan, mining pool operators connect the cloud hash rate generated from our mining machines to blockchain network for a period specified in the cloud hash rate plan subscribed to and cryptocurrency rewards are delivered directly to the crypto wallet of the Cloud Hash Rate customer. For plans under “classic mode”, we generate revenue from fees paid to subscribe the hash rate as well as electricity, which maintains the mining machines that produce the subscribed hash rate. For hash rate subscription plans under “accelerator mode”, while customers enjoy lower hash rate subscription fees compared to “classic mode”, on top of the aforementioned hash rate and electricity subscription fees, we are also entitled to sharing part of the mining rewards net of the electricity cost the customer paid for once that customer’s investment cost is recovered, which is defined as the cumulative mining reward received from the mining pool equals the amount of hash rate subscription fees paid upfront and the electricity fee paid and used to date. This unique model of selling cloud hash rate allows us to smooth the impact of Bitcoin price volatility as our income from hash rate sales are less directly related to cryptocurrency price compared to self-mining. When Bitcoin price appreciates, we can capture part of the benefits as the demand of hash rate will be driven up; when Bitcoin price depreciates, we are still able to recover costs or generate revenue from hash rate sales. We use standard agreement with our customer for Cloud Hash Rate. We generated revenue of US$124.2 million, US$121.3 million and US$67.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively, from Cloud Hash Rate.
 


Hash Rate Marketplace. We connect supply of hash rate from mining machines owned by third parties, such as miners or mining datacenter owners, with our user base with hash rate demands, allowing such hash rate suppliers to access our large base of high-quality customers. With Hash Rate Marketplace, we offer a marketplace that is able to utilize excessive hash rate in the network and expand ways of monetization for third-party hash rate suppliers, accelerating their cash payback to support future expansion. For transactions completed on Hash Rate Marketplace, the third-party hash rate suppliers will be responsible for providing hash rate and post-sale services, pursuant to the negotiated terms between these third-party hash rate suppliers and customers, with which we have no involvement and we generate revenue by charging service fees. Revenue generated from Hash Rate Marketplace was immaterial prior to December 31, 2023.
 
Hosting
 
We offer three types of hosting services, Cloud Hosting, General Hosting and Membership Hosting, to meet customers’ diverse demands for professional hosting solutions and lower the prohibitive upfront investment costs associated with mining datacenter construction, deployment and operation.
 

Cloud Hosting. We provide retail miner customers with one-stop mining machine hosting solutions, enabling them to gain access to stable supply of computing power from specified mining machines in a capital-light manner. Through Cloud Hosting, users participate in a customer group, pay an upfront fee for the computing power produced by the specified mining machines, and subscribe to the hosting service for the same mining machines. As such, customers may enjoy the computing power derived from specified mining machines over the life of such mining machines to generate cryptocurrency rewards. Traditionally, a miner has to purchase and physically possess a mining machine, deploy and operate it in a mining datacenter in order to gain access to all the computing power generated from that specified mining machine. Cloud Hosting provides an innovative alternative by providing hosting service for the specified mining machines that produce computing power for the Cloud Hosting customers, saving the customers the need to pick up the mining machine, construct one’s own mining datacenter, and operate and deploy the mining machine. Specifically, we are responsible for the operation and maintenance of mining datacenter that hosts the mining machines, as well as mining machine operation, maintenance and repair. As such, we significantly lower the upfront investment and expertise threshold for retail miners, providing them with the same opportunity of cryptocurrency returns as major and sophisticated miners. We also provide complete set of cloud hosting technical solutions and resources to ensure operational efficiency. Our first-of-its-kind “group-buying” model allows retail miners to purchase the computing service from and maintenance service for as little as one mining machine, further lessening the upfront investment burden. Similar to the Cloud Hash Rate “accelerator mode” subscription plans, in 2021, we launched the “accelerated payback mode” for Cloud Hosting, where customers can enjoy a favorable rate for the upfront fee compared to “classic mode” (i.e., the traditional arrangement). Under the standard agreements with our customers for Cloud Hosting, we charge customers an upfront fee so they can secure the procurement of computing power from the specified mining machines. We also charge a maintenance fee for our electricity supply, daily maintenance and repair care. We are entitled to a portion of the mining profit of an “accelerated payback mode” customer after the customer recovers the investment cost, which is defined as the mining reward earned from the mining pool equals the upfront fee paid and the maintenance fee and other fees incurred to date. We generated revenue of US$7.6 million, US$12.7 million and US$3.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively, from Cloud Hosting. We did not generate any revenue from mining profit sharing from plans under Cloud Hosting’s “accelerated payback mode” for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023.
 

General Hosting. We offer hosting solutions to professional miner customers who send their mining machines to our mining datacenters for hosting. Specifically, we provide server room, professional support from technical and managerial personnel, supporting power, network and security monitoring facilities, among others, and carry out routine maintenance, system configurations, troubleshooting and daily reporting to ensure a smooth operation of the hosted mining machines. At the customers’ option, we also provide assistance for deployment, installation and removal of hosted mining machines and repairment of mining machines. Under the standard agreements with General Hosting customers, we charge monthly service fees, which include costs of operating and maintaining the mining machines, costs of electricity and other costs mainly related to mining machine deployment and repair. In the arrangement with certain customers, we are also entitled to additional variable consideration based on the customers’ mining yield during a period. We generated revenue of US$18.3 million, US$99.3 million and US$97.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively, from General Hosting.
 

Membership Hosting. We offer a membership program for large-scale miner customers who seek stable, long-term supply of hosting capacity and send their mining machines to our mining datacenters for hosting purpose. Unlike General Hosting where the customer’s access to mining datacenter capacity is subject to the availability of such capacity at the time the request was raised, a customer under Membership Hosting will be designated of certain capacity (i.e., designated capacity) exclusive for use by such customer, by signing a standard membership program agreement. We also provide other program benefits, if available, to customers under Membership Hosting, including, among other things, (i) early, priority and exclusive access to the newly available mining datacenter capacity that is sufficient for large-scale miners, upon a new mining datacenter becomes available and (ii) more favorable pricing terms for our services, such as mining machine management services, than the prevailing price in the local market. We charge an upfront fee for such program benefits. We also provide management services, such as infrastructure, custody, and utility, for the mining machines of a Membership Hosting customer up to designated capacity, pursuant to a separate management services agreement, and charge management services fee. We also charge additional fee, at our stand-alone selling price, for the subscription of our mining machine operation service. The management services fee and the mining machine operation fee, as applicable, are charged to the customer monthly based on the customer’s consumption of resources, such as the amount of electricity used in a period. For our Membership Hosting contracts, payment terms are individually negotiated and may differ among customers. Through this membership program, we seek to facilitate risk control and stable hosting income from large-scale miner customers by providing them reliable and long-term hosting capacity. We generated no revenue prior to December 31, 2021 and revenue of US$26.1 million and US$79.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2023, from Membership Hosting.
 
The major differences among Cloud Hosting, General Hosting and Membership Hosting are the sources of mining machines, the target customers and the customers’ payment of hosting fees, as summarized below.
 
Hosting service
Sources of mining
machines
Target customers
Fees
Cloud Hosting
Mining machines from our existing mining fleets
Retail miners
- Upfront payment for subscription of computing power from our mining machines
     
- Maintenance fees throughout the service process
General Hosting
Mining machines from target customers
Professional miners
- Monthly payment for hosting service based on actual consumption of our mining datacenter resources, such as electricity
     
- Additional variable consideration based on the customers’ mining yield
Membership Hosting
Mining machines from target customers
Large-scale miners
- Upfront payment to secure our capacity
     
- Monthly payment for management service based on the actual consumption of our mining datacenter resources, such as electricity, after the delivery of capacity.

We believe that hosting services will enable us to maximize assets utilization with minimal capital expenditure for our growing mining datacenter capacity, maximize overall scale of hash rate supported by our software platform Minerplus which may lead to future business opportunities, and improve the operational efficiency by serving professional customers.
 
Minerplus is our self-developed integrated intelligent software platform that offers software support to significantly reduce time needed for daily maintenance and mining machine upgrade and substantially decrease operation and maintenance headcount. The functions of Minerplus mainly encompasses real-time mining datacenter and hash rate monitoring as well as virus detection and removal. Minerplus enables intelligent management of our self-mining business and enhances product and service quality of Cloud Hash Rate and our hosting services. We also provide standalone Minerplus service to third-party mining datacenters.
 
Measures to prevent unauthorized or impermissible customer access
 
We have established anti-money laundering (“AML”) processes, know your customer (“KYC”) procedures and IP address geo-blocking measures, to prevent unauthorized and impermissible access to our hash rate products by U.S. customers and customers from other jurisdictions where we have identified laws or regulations that restrict the offering of our hash rate products. These measures generally encompass the following key steps: 1) following IP address and customer identification, IP addresses located in regions such as Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria, and Crimea Area, will be blocked, and IP addresses in most other areas, including the United States, will be asked to complete AML and KYC procedures prior to purchasing our products and services; 2) following and based on the results of customer due diligence process, customers from the United States or other applicable jurisdictions will be denied purchase of our hash rate products; 3) transactions and the KYC status of the customers will be subject to our monitoring and periodic review.
 
For a discussion of the risks relating to offering our hash rate products to U.S. customers and/or customers from other jurisdictions where such offering may be restricted, see the section entitled “Item 3.D - Key Information - Risk Factors - Risks Related to Regulatory Compliance and Other Legal Matters - Our hash rate sharing business may be subject to U.S. jurisdiction if we are not able to avoid offering or selling our hash rate products to U.S. customers. Additionally, our hash rate sharing business may be deemed as securities offerings in other jurisdictions where it is offered.”
 
AI Cloud Service
 
We completed the deployment and successful testing of our NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD H100 system in March 2024, becoming the first cloud service platform in the Asian region to offer NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD H100 service. The service provides our customers with access to NVIDIA AI supercomputing to help them accelerate their development of generative AI, large language models (LLMs), and other AI workloads.
 
Our Cryptocurrencies
 
Cryptocurrencies and Protocols Involved in Our Business
 
96.9%, 96.1% and 98.8% of our self-mining revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023 respectively were generated from Bitcoin mining. The remaining mining yield were generated from Zcash, Ethereum, Dogecoin, Litecoin and other cryptocurrencies that are less mainstream, as illustrated below:

   
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2023
   
2022
   
2021
 
   
US$
   
%
   
US$
   
%
   
US$
   
%
 
   
(in thousands, except for percentages)
 
BTC
   
110,386
     
98.8
     
59,845
     
96.1
     
185,656
     
96.9
 
ZEC
   
454
     
0.4
     
902
     
1.4
     
3,220
     
1.7
 
DOGE
   
371
     
0.4
     
590
     
0.9
     
1,239
     
0.6
 
LTC
   
194
     
0.2
     
248
     
0.4
     
597
     
0.3
 
FIL
   
183
     
0.2
     
458
     
0.7
     
129
     
0.1
 
XCH
   
37
     
0.0
     
73
     
0.1